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Chattopadhyay, D.N., Paul, B.N., Mandal, R.N., Adhikari, S. and Hussan, A. 2024. Effect of protein levels of supplementary feed on survival and growth performance of hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) larvae under co-feeding condition. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 239-254.

Hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha, is a commercially important food fish in South Asian countries. Recently, this species has received much attention for its conservation through captive culture due to declining trend in nature. Insufficient seed is the major bottleneck for its captive culture. The objective is to identify a best dietary protein level of hilsa larvae co-fed with planktons for better survival and growth to support its culture. Eight days post hatch hilsa larvae (3.67±0.21 mm/0.36±0.00 mg) were reared for 80 days in fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks at 250 nos./m3 in triplicates and fed with three different formulated diets as FI, F2, and F3 having 35.5, 40.5, and 45.3% crude protein (CP), along with Chlorella sp., Brachionus sp. and mixed zooplanktons. A significantly (P<0.05) higher survival, final body-length, final body-weight, daily body-length gain, daily body-weight gain and SGR in F2 (88.5%, 36.21 mm, 0.43 g, 0.41 mm, 0.01 g, and 8.96%/day) than that in F1 (69.33%, 32.1 mm, 0.31 g, 0.36 mm, 0.004 g, and 8.55%/day) and F3 (40.33%, 30.03 mm, 0.2 g, 0.33 mm, 0.003 g, and 8.02%/day) indicated that co-feeding the larvae with 40.5% dietary CP and plankton was optimum for their best survival and growth. The present findings may be useful for increased production of hilsa seed, which may support its captive culture-a way of their conservation.

Keywords: Co-feeding, Formulated diets, Growth, Hilsa larvae, Survival

*Corresponding author: debchatto2022@gmail.com


Bhardwaj, R., Wadhwa, M., Bakshi, M.P.S. and Uppal, S.K. 2024. Impact of restricted followed by compensatory feeding on the performance of buffalo calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 255-268.

The study was planned to assess the effect of restricted feeding followed by compensatory feeding on the performance of buffalo calves. After conditioning, buffalo calves (21; 10-month-old, 100 kg BW) were divided into 2 groups (Gp-I and Gp-II) of 7 and 14 animals each on BW basis and were fed @100 and 75% of NRC for 75 days. The DM and N-intake, total and individual VFA production in rumen, blood glucose, T3 and T4, urinary total purine derivatives (PD) were lower (P<0.01), while protein, globulin and creatinine were higher (P<0.01) in Gp-II than Gp-I. The animals in the Gp-II lost (P<0.01) body weight. After 75 days of restricted feeding, the animals in the control Gp-I were continued with the same feeding schedule, but those under restricted feeding (Gp-II) were divided into 2 equal groups and were offered compensatory diet @100% (Gp-IIa) and 125% NRC (Gp-IIb) for next 75 days. The DM intake, digestibility of nutrients, and nitrogen retention were similar in all the groups. The production of total VFAs and acetate in the rumen was higher (P<0.05), but low (P<0.01) levels of propionate, butyrate and that of isobutyrate (P<0.05) were observed in Gp-II. The ruminal total-N, TCA-N and ammoniacal-N in Gp-IIa and Gp-IIb improved (P<0.01) in comparison to those in Gp-I. Blood glucose and serum IGF were higher (P<0.05) in Gp-IIb (125% NRC). The ADG in Gp-IIa and Gp-IIb showed a remarkable recovery and reached close to the ADG in animals under Gp-I. The study conclusively revealed that animals which were on restricted feeding could recoup from the negative effects, during re-alimentation phase.

Keywords: Buffalo calves, Compensatory feeding, Growth, Purine derivatives, Restricted feeding, Rumen metabolites

*Corresponding author: bakshimps2@gmail.com


Panda, A.K., Sahoo, B. and Kumar, A. 2024. Effect of low protein diets on production performance, egg quality and serum biochemical parameters of Gramapriya laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 269-276.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of low protein diets on production performance, egg quality and serum biochemical parameters of Gramapriya laying hens. A total of 96 Gramapriya laying hens (32 wks) were randomly distributed into four groups with three replicates of 8 birds in each. Diets were formulated with the same level of metabolizable energy but different levels of crude protein (14, 15, 16 and 17%). The ratio of lysine and methionine to CP was kept constant in all the diets. A measured quantity of each diet was fed to one of the four treatments for a period of 12 weeks (32-44 wk) of age. The body weight of laying hens of 14% CP group decrease by 24.28 g. The body weight gain of laying hens increased linearly by increasing the CP content of diet from 15 to 17%. The egg production, egg mass output and feed efficiency improved significantly by increasing dietary CP content from 14 to 15%. Egg weight and egg quality parameters were not influenced due to variation in CP. Total protein concentration in serum of laying hens was lowest in group containing 14% CP. Serum protein and calcium concentrations increased significantly with increasing CP content from 14 to 16%. Increasing the CP content to 16% significantly increased serum uric acid levels. It was concluded that, diet containing 0.74% lysine, 0.32% methionine and 15% CP with 2600 kcal ME/kg diet was found adequate to maintain optimum production performance in Gramapriya laying hens.

Keywords: Egg quality, Gramapriya laying hens, Low protein diets, Production performance, Serum biochemical parameters

*Corresponding author: akpanda59@gmail.com


Kumar, R., Arun K Verma, P. Tripathi and D.L. Gupta 2024. Effect of dietary incorporation of cotton seed cake (Gossypium Sp.) on milk production, constituents, fatty acid profile, somatic cell counts and reproductive hormones in late lactating Barbari goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 277- 287.

Feeding cum lactation trial was conducted to study the effect of inclusion of cotton seed cake (CSC) on milk production, constituents, fatty acid profile, somatic cell counts, hematology and reproductive hormones in Barbari goats. Eighteen female Barbari goats (age approx. 3-5 years and mean body weight 36.35±1.33 kg) were divided into three groups (Gr I, Gr II and Gr III) of six each as per completely randomised design (CRD). All the animals were fed with concentrate pellet and gram straw to meet their nutrient requirement. Control group (Gr I) was fed with concentrate pellet having 25 % linseed cake while Gr II and Gr III were fed with concentrate pellet in which linseed cake was replaced with cotton seed cake at 50 and 100% level. Milk production (g/day) and total solids (%), protein (%) and ash (%) were statistically similar in all three groups of lactating goats at 30 and 60 days of experimental feeding. Milk production (g/day) was 561.50, 545.00 and 525.80 in Gr I, Gr II and Gr III respectively. Incorporation of CSC in the ration tended to provide higher mono unsaturated fatty acids. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in blood cell counts and biochemical parameters viz., glucose, total protein, albumin urea, and ALT and AST activities among different groups. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (IU/L), progesterone and estradiol were within normal range and similar among the groups. Present study concluded that cotton seed cake can be incorporated at 25% level in the concentrate mixture of lactating goats without any adverse effect on milk production, constituents and reproductive hormones.

Keywords: Cotton seed cake, Lactating goats, Milk fatty acids, Reproductive hormones

*Corresponding author: ravindra.srivastava@gmail.com; ravindra.kumar@icar.gov.in/p>


Chaudhary, S.K., Dutta, N., Jadhav, S.E., Singh, G., Singh, S.K. and Tewari, D. 2024. Novel feed supplement improved metabolic hormones, antioxidant activity, immune response and gene expression in postpartum cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 289-302.

This study was taken up to assess the efficacy of a customized novel feed supplement on circulating concentration of metabolic hormones, antioxidant activity, immune response and expression of immune related cytokines and genes involved in energy metabolism in early postpartum dairy cows. Postpartum crossbred lactating cows (N=12) were equally and randomly allocated to CON (control) and NFS (Novel Feed Supplement) groups. The cattle in CON group were fed on green fodder and wheat straw-based diet with concentrate mixture, whereas, cattle in NFS group were fed according to CON group with additional novel feed supplement @ 0.25% of BW. The feeding trials was continued from 60 days post-partum to 150 days lactation period (total experimental period was 90 days). Circulating concentration of T3, T4, GH and IGF-1 hormones were significantly (P<0.05) increased in NFS than CON group. The cows fed NFS diet exhibited significantly (P<0.05) improved in NFS fed cows implicating an improved immune response. The fold expression of LEP gene was higher (P<0.001) and GHRL gene was lower (P<0.001) in NFS than CON groups. Thus, it can be concluded that, dietary inclusion of the novel feed supplement @ 0.25% of BW significantly improved the circulating concentration of metabolic hormones, antioxidant activity, immunity and overall health of lactating crossbred cattle during early lactation period.

Keywords: Cows, Cytokines, Ghrelin, Immunity, Leptin, Negative energy balance

*Corresponding author: sandy6050@gmail.com


Paul, M., Sardar, P., Sahu, N.P., Jana, P., Deo, A.D., Shamna, N., Varghese, T. and Mannur, V.S. 2024. Feeding of graded levels of lipid to gift juveniles cultured in inland ground saline water (IGSW): changes in growth, metabolism and antioxidant status. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 303- 317.

A 60 days experiment was conducted to study the effect of different dietary lipid levels viz., TL4, TL6, TL8, TL10, TL12, TP14 and TL16 on growth, hemato-biochemical, metabolic responses and antioxidative status of GIFT tilapia juveniles reared in inland ground saline water (IGSW) of 15 ppt salinity. In indoor tank rearing system, a random distribution of 315 acclimatized fish (average BW 1.90±0.01g) @15 fish/tank was done in seven groups in triplicates. The results indicated that, the weight gain, metabolic growth rate, FER, ANPU and AST and ALT (hepatic and muscle) activities were increased (P<0.05) with increase in dietary lipid up to 10% and then decreased. Hepatic and muscle LDH activities significantly (P<0.05) decreased linearly with increasing dietary lipid. Significantly (P<0.05) higher SOD and CAT activities in both liver and gill was found in TL10 group. Hepatic MDA content was lowest (P<0.05) in TL4 and highest in TL16 group. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in liver and muscle MDH and haemato-biochemical parameters in relation to dietary lipid levels. The present findings conclude that 10% dietary lipid is ideal to support growth, nutrient utilisation, metabolic and antioxidative status of GIFT tilapia juveniles reared in dynamic IGSW.

Keywords: Antioxidative enzymes, Dietary lipid, GIFT (Tilapia), Growth, Inland ground saline

*Corresponding author: parimalsardar0001@gmail.com/parimalsardar@cife.edu.in


Kuriakose, P.A., Senthil, M.S., Prejit, Elangia, N. and Chacko, B. 2024. Effect of dietary supplementation of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici probiotics on growth performance and intestinal histomorphology in Large White Yorkshire piglets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 319-332.

The current study evaluated the dietary supplementation of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2374 (eLpl 2374) and Pediococcus acidilactici NCIM 5721 (ePed 5721) on growth performance and histomorphometric measurements. The survival rate of eLpl 2374 and ePed 5721 after encapsulation did not differ significantly. The in vitro survival rate and efficiency of eLpl 2374 was significantly (P<0.00) better than ePed 5721 in SGJ and SIJ, but was reduced in both the probiotics. Eighteen weaned (6 wk old) male, crossbred Large White Yorkshire (LWY) piglets with mean body weight of 8.77±0.37 kg were randomly distributed in three groups with three replicates with two animals in each replicate. All the animals were fed with basal diet, formulated to meet ICAR (2013) nutrient requirements. The water sprinkled maize powder was allowed for overnight and encapsulated probiotic ePed 5721 (1 ×1011 CFU/mL) and eLpl 2374 (1 ×1011 CFU/mL) was mixed with 100 g of maize powder separately and given to respective groups and control (Contr) group received 100 g of water sprinkled maize powder only. The pigs in eLpl 2374 showed significantly (P<0.00) higher body weight and body weight gain, with reduced feed intake (P<0.01) and improved feed gain ratio (P<0.01) compared to control animals from weaning to grower stage (wk 22), but similar values were recorded from weaning to finisher stage (wk 33). Moreover, pigs in ePed 5721 and control groups showed similar results. Similarly, villus height, crypt depth of duodenum and ileum and goblet cells number were significantly (P<0.01) increased in eLpl 2374 pigs. It may be concluded that supplementation of eLpl 2374 proved to be better choice for improving body weight with better feed gain ratio in pigs upto grower stage.

Keywords: Growth performance, Intestinal histomorphology, Pigs, Probiotics

*Corresponding author: ssenthil2043@gmail.com


Kondhare, A.A., Kadam, M.M., Bhaisare, D.B., Shinde, S.V., Chopade, S.V. and Gole, M.A. 2024. Influence of dietary phytosome conjugated cinnamaldehyde supplementation on performance, immune status and gut health in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 333-345.

The present research was designed to assess the influence of dietary supplementation of essential oils (Eos) consisting of 200 g/ton and 100 g/ton plain cinnamaldehyde essential oil and phytosome conjugated cinnamaldehyde essential oil respectively along with antibiotic growth promoter @ 500 g/ton of feed on growth performance, gut health and immunity of straight run broiler chicken upto 6 weeks of age. A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks (Vencobb 430) were randomly divided into four groups (60 chicks/ group) each with four replicates of 15 chicks in each. The control group received the basal diet, while the other three groups received the basal diet supplemented with 500 g/ton Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD), 200 g/ton plain cinnamaldehyde essential oil and 100 g/ton phytosome conjugated cinnamaldehyde essential oil, respectively for 42 days. The phytosome conjugated cinnamaldehyde essential oil group showed significantly (P<0.001) higher live body weight (LBW), body weight gain (BWG) and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to other groups. The addition of essential oils does not affect the weight of edible parts and dressing percentage of carcass. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre against New Castle Disease virus were non-significant on 14, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Significant difference was observed in villi height and villi height to crypt depth ratio in the antibiotic group. Supplementation of essential oils significantly (P<0.001) changed the caecal microbial count during entire study period. From the present findings, it could be concluded that phytosome conjugated cinnamaldehyde essential oil (@ 500 g/T) can act better for achieving over all best results than plain cinnamaldehyde.

Keywords: Keywords: Bacitracin methylene disalicylate, Broiler, Essential oil, Growth performance, Phytosome conjugated cinnamaldehyde

*Corresponding author: darshanabhaisare@gmail.com


Doneria, R., Dubey, M., Gendley, M.K., Dutta, G.K., Pathak, R., Parmar, M.S. and Barwa, D.K. 2024. Effect of supplementation of cinnamon essential oil on growth performance, nutrient utilization, carcass traits and biochemical profile in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 347- 358.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, carcass traits and biochemical profile in broiler chicken. Day old broiler chicks (n=180) were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 replicates of 10 chicks in each. Six types of diets (T0-T5) were formulated, T0 consisted of basal diet without antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) as negative control (NC), T1 contained basal diet with AGP, T3 to T6 contained basal diet with graded levels of CEO (200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg) respectively. Significantly (P<0.01) higher weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) was obtained in birds of group T4 as compared to other groups during finisher phase. The feed intake was significantly (P<0.01) lower in group T4 as compared to other dietary groups. The supplementation of CEO @400 mg/kg diet significantly (P<0.05) improved the metabolizability of crude protein. No significant difference was observed in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) balance among the dietary groups. However, high density lipid (HDL) cholesterol and alanine transaminase (ALT) activity differed significantly among the groups. Significant (P<0.05) difference in defeathered, eviscerated and dressed weight was observed among all the treatment groups. The present study concluded that cinnamon oil can be safely incorporated at the rate of 400 mg/ kg in the diet of broiler chicken as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.

Keywords: Biochemical, Broiler, Carcass, Cinnamon oil, Growth performance

*Corresponding author: rupal.pathak3@gmail.com


Harsh, Patil, A.K., Jain, R.K., Kurechiya, N. and Keshri, A. 2024. Area specific micronutrient supplementation augments udder health and milk production in peri-parturient Gir cows-A field oriented study. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 359-371.

Eighteen healthy multiparous advanced pregnant Gir cows, identical in body weights (368.19±2.84 kg), parity, and feeding regime, were selected for the study. Feed offered and residues left of an individual animal were measured and recorded for 7 consecutive days to access the dry matter intake and micronutrients imbalance. A micronutrient supplement was designed to take care of the deficient micronutrients and supplemented to Gir cows (n=9) of treatment group, while (n=9) control animals, were fed as per the existing practices of farmers without additional supplementation. Study was continued for 2 months during advanced pregnancy and 2 months post-calving. Dry matter intake recorded weekly during the whole study remained comparable (P>0.05) between two groups. Udder health monitored fortnightly by Modified California Mastitis test, milk pH and Somatic Cell Count indicated improvement (P<0.05) of micronutrients supplementation. Results revealed that average milk yield was increased (P>0.05) by 12.83% in supplemented group without affecting the chemical composition of milk (Fat, TS, SNF, lactose and milk total protein) in Gir cows. These findings may suggest that supplementation of micronutrient in the ration of periparturient Gir cows not only improved the udder health by reducing the occurrence of mastitis but also increased the milk yield without affecting milk quality.

Keywords: Gir cows, Mastitis, Micronutrient supplement, Milk quality, Milk yield

*Corresponding author: ashokdrpatil@gmail.com


Namdeo, S., Baghel, R.P.S., Nayak, S., Khare, A. and Pal, R.P. 2024. Dietary supplementation of ginger, garlic and turmeric on the performance of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 373-385.

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of ginger, garlic and turmeric alone and in various combinations on performance, nutrient utilization, serum biochemical parameters and economics of broiler production. One hundred thirty-five, day-old Cobb chicks were randomly distributed into 9 experimental groups, each consisting of 3 replicates of 5 chicks each. The standard broiler diets (T1) were formulated as per commercial chick feed specification of Vencobb 400. Diets T2, T3 and T4 were supplemented with 0.5% each of ginger, garlic and turmeric, respectively. T5 with 0.25% each of ginger and garlic, T6 with 0.25% each of turmeric and ginger, T7 with 0.25% each of turmeric and garlic, T8 with a combination of ginger, garlic and turmeric at 0.25% each, and T9 with 0.5% each of ginger and garlic and 0.25% of turmeric. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks. Results revealed that supplementation of 0.5% garlic to the basal diet of broilers significantly (P<0.05) improved their feed efficiency, nutrient utilization and serum biochemical parameters followed by those fed diet supplemented with combination of 0.25 ginger and 0.25% garlic. Economically, a combination of 0.25 ginger and 0.25% garlic showed the highest gross return per bird, while 0.50% garlic supplementation resulted in the highest profit per bird. In conclusion, 0.50% garlic supplementation was found to be the most economical choice, followed by a combination of 0.25% each of ginger and garlic, for improving broiler production.

Keywords: Economics, Garlic, Ginger, Performance, Turmeric

*Corresponding author: drsonalinamdeo@gmail.com


Bhinchhar, B.K., Paswan, V.K., Kharkwal, S., Yadav, S.P., Singh, A.P., Kumar, V. and Kanetkar, P. 2024. Analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine milk samples in Varanasi region, India. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 387-403.

Extensive applications of pesticides on crops result in the contamination of feed. Contaminated feed, fodder, and drinking water of livestock lead to adulteration of milk which in turn is the primary cause of substandard nutritional value of the milk produced in India. Bovine milk from different blocks of Varanasi region of Uttar-Pradesh, India has been analysed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues. The study was based on 360 bovine milk samples collected from 4 blocks in 3 seasons viz., summer, rainy and winter. Out of 180 cow milk samples, 68 (37.77%) samples were found to contain OCP residues. Contamination with aldrin residues were found with a total value of 16.11% in cow milk and 25.00% in buffalo milk samples. The mean endosulfan concentration in cow milk and buffalo milk were 1.41 and 1.77 µg/kg, respectively. In cow milk samples the residues of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, γ-HCH were 1.8, 4.4, 6.7 and 6.6 µg/kg while in buffalo milk it was observed 5.4, 5.3, 8.9 and 8.6 mg/kg, respectively. Among different DDT isomers, 4,4’ DDE and 2,4’ DDT had the highest prevalence of 37.22 and 37.00% in cow milk samples. The prevalence of residues of 2,4’ DDD, 2,4’ DDT and 4,4’ DDT in buffalo milk was 19.4, 26.1 and 30.0%, respectively. The highest prevalence of OCP residues in buffalo and cow milk was observed in winter followed by summer and rainy seasons successively. The above MRL prevalence of OCP residues was 1.7% (3 out of 180) in cow milk and 6.1% (11 out of 180) in buffalo milk. The findings underscore the need for continued monitoring of pesticide residues in milk and the importance of promoting judicious pesticide use in agriculture to minimize contamination and potential health risks.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Maximum Residue Limit (MRL), Organochlorine, Pesticide residues, QuEChERS extraction

*Corresponding author: vkpaswan.vet@gmail.com


Ayssiwede, S.B., Atchiwassa, S., N’zi, R.K., Ossebi, W., Kabore, B., Malou, R., Diop, M. and Missohou, A. 2024. Nutritive values of some local feed resources and digestibility of diets based on dried cashew apple (Anarcadium occidentale) in local breed pigs in Senegal. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 405- 417.

This work carried out from May 2016 to January 2017 in Dakar was to study the nutritive values of local feed resources (19 nos.) from Casamance region and the digestibility of diets based on dried cashew apple pulp (CAP) in local pigs. Six male pigs (21.2±7.5 kg) live body weight (LBW) were divided into 3 treatment groups of 2 pigs viz., CAP0, CAP10 and CAP20 containing 0, 10 and 20% of CAP. A oneweek adaptation period for the pigs in their individual metabolic cage was observed before the start of the trial. Then they were fed ad-libitum each diet according to a Latin square design. The results showed that the various feed resources used in pig feeding in Casamance are good sources of nutrients. The CAP incorporated up to 20% in the pigs’diet proved to be a substitute of energy, fiber and protein feed, and had no adverse effect on their health, FI, ADG, FCR and digestibility of nutrients except ether extract (EE) which was significantly lower with CAP20 compared to the control diet. It would be useful to conduct a longer study on young pigs to evaluate the effects of incorporation of CAP in their diet on their fattening performances and profitability.

Keywords: Cashew apple pulp, Digestibility, Feed resources, Local breed pigs, Nutritive value

*Corresponding author: s.ayssiwede@gmail.com; orayissimbos@yahoo.fr


Dwivedi, D., Singh, V.K., Tewari, D., Gautam, S., Verma, N. and Singh, P. 2024. Effect of supplementation of polyherbal mixture (Nargrophyt) on performance, blood and carcass indices of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 419-429.

To investigate the effect of polyherbal mixture (NARGROPHYT) on performance, blood and carcass indices, 250 Vencobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five groups with five replicates of 10 chicks each. The dietary treatments were basal diet without any supplement (NCON), with antibiotic (PCON), with ‘NARGROPHYT’ @ 0.25% (NGP-L), @ 1.25% (NGP-M) and @ 2.50% (NGP-H) respectively. After six weeks of the feeding, body weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher, while feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) lower in NGP-H and PCON group in comparison to NCON and other supplemented groups. The FCR of NGP-H birds was significantly (P<0.05) lower, while EER, PER and PI was significantly (P<0.05) higher among all the groups. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in percent nutrient retention among the treatment groups. The haemoglobin was significantly (P<0.05) higher and serum cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05) lower in NCON and ‘NARGROPHYT’ supplemented groups in comparison to antibiotic supplemented group. The drawn yield of NGP-H and PCON groups was significantly (P<0.05) higher than NCON group. Profit per bird was significantly (P<0.05) higher in PCON birds followed by NGP-H in comparison to NCON birds. It can therefore be concluded that from food safety point of view polyherbal mixture ‘NARGROPHYT’ @ 2.5% can effectively be used as an alternative to AGPs, despite being less economical than antibiotic supplemented feed.

Keywords: Broiler, NARGROPHYT, Performance indices, Polyherbal mixture

*Corresponding author: dharmesh.tewari@rediff.com


Sunetha, S., Kumar, A., Tiwari, D.P., Mandal, B.C., Singh, D.V., Prakash, A., Singh, G. and Singh, M.K. 2024. Effect of plane of nutrition on the performance of crossbred calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 431-440.

A feeding trial was carried out for 120 days to determine the effect of the plane of nutrition on crossbred calves performance. Twelve crossbred calves were randomly divided into two groups of six each with similar body weight. Growth study was conducted on the basis of feeding high and low energy ration containing 60% concentrate and 40% sorghum stover in group 1 and 40% concentrate and 60% sorghum stover in group 2. Mean dry matter intake was (P<0.05/0.01) higher in calves fed high level of concentrate. The average daily intake of total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein and feed conversion ratio were higher (P<0.05/0.01) in group 1 compared to group 2. A high phenotypic correlation was observed amongst all the body measurements. Body condition score was higher in group 1 as compared to group 2. The results of the present study reveal that higher proportion of concentrate in the complete ration improved nutrient digestibility and higher energy availability possibly resulting in improved growth performance of the crossbred calves. Feeding of the diet comprised of 60% concentrate and 40% roughage would be beneficial in calves/heifers for attaining early maturity.

Keywords: Body condition score, Body measurement, Crossbred calves, Feed intake, Feeding trial

*Corresponding author: drmksingh_1@rediffmail.com


Mahesh, M.S., Chaudhary, S.K., Tewari, D. and Dutta, N. 2024. Hydroponic forage for ruminant feeding: A comprehensive review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 441-459.

The technology of growing forage crops without the support of soil, but in an aqueous medium is known as hydroponic forage (HPF). Unlike soil-based traditional cultivation, with HPF, the growth cycle of forage will be shorter (4-10 days), which can ensure round-the-year forage availability either from lowcost or hi-tech HPF devices. In addition, HPF is immune to weather fluctuations and is a climatically resilient agricultural practice. On the nutritional front, while the crude protein content is known to augment in HPF compared with original grain and conventional green forage; energy will be greater than green forage but lower than grain. In this backdrop, the present updated review discusses the zoo-technical attributes such as intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, growth and feed efficiency, lactation, reproduction and health status of ruminants upon feeding varied species of cereal- and legume HPF. Tradeoffs between animal productivity and economic feasibility have been inconsistent in the literature on feeding HPF. Furthermore, the potential merits and pitfalls of HPF vis-à-vis economic delivery of nutrients for practical diet formulation are also highlighted along with the way forward to leverage the benefits of this technology in the context of tropical livestock production systems under changing climatic scenario.

Keywords: Green forage, Hydroponics, Nutritional value, Production performance, Ruminants, Sprouted feed

*Corresponding author: drmaheshmsvet@gmail.com; mahesh.ms@bhu.ac.in



Rao, S.V.R., Paul, S.S., Raju, M.V.L.N., Nagalakshmi, D., Prakash, B. and Kumar, P.S.P. 2024. Requirements of metabolisable energy, crude protein and methionine for growing white leghorn chicken under tropical condition. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 1-13.

Three experiments were conducted using growing White Leghorn pullets (Babcock BV 300) by feeding graded concentration of metabolizable energy (ME, 2500 to 3000 kcal/kg at 100 kcal/kg increment), crude protein (CP, 125 to 195 g/kg at 10 g/kg increment) and methionine (Met, 3.1, 3.4, 3.7 and 4.1 g/kg) to determine the optimal requirement of dietary ME, CP and Met based on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). A total of 5420, 5888 and 2576 day-old chicks were used in energy, protein and Met experiments, respectively and each diet was offered ad libitum from day 1 to 20 weeks of age to ten, eight and seven replicates (92 birds in each), respectively. BWG during starter (1-8 weeks) and overall experiment (1-20 weeks) was significantly higher in chicks fed 2800 and 2700 kcal/kg compared to the 2500 kcal/kg ME group. Similarly, the optimum BWG was observed at 165 and 135 g protein and 3.74 and 3.4 g Met/kg, respectively in starter and grower (9-20 weeks) diets. The FCR improved during all phases with energy, during starter phase with protein and Met concentration in diet. Based on the results it is concluded that White Leghorn pullets require 2800 and 2700 kcal/kg ME during starter and overall experiment phase, 165 g and 135 g/kg protein during starter and grower phases, while Met requirements for the respective phases were 3.74 and 3.4 g/kg diet for optimum weight gain.

Keywords: Nutrient requirement, Performance, Pullets, White-egg type chicken

*Corresponding author: svramarao1@gmail.com


Chaudhary, P., Jadhav, S.E., Muwel, N., Lokesha, E., Thamizhan, P., Choubey, P.K., Pattanaik, A.K. and Dutta, N. 2024. Performance and nutrient utilization in goats fed various levels of zinc under endotoxin mediated stress condition. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 15-30.

A study was conducted to assess the effects of different levels of dietary zinc (Zn) on the performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen (N) balance in goats under endotoxin mediated biotic stress conditions. The trial period for current study was nine weeks. Thirty male growing goats of 12-month age and 13±0.2 kg BW were assigned to six groups based on body weight and body condition score. The CON, Zn1, and Zn2 were fed 30.33, 55.05, and 75.50 ppm Zn respectively under normal condition without biotic stress; whereas ECON, EZn1, and EZn2 were fed 30.33, 55.05, and 75.50 ppm Zn, respectively under biotic stress conditions induced by a low-dose endotoxin (0.2 µg/kg BW) treatment at weekly intervals for the last six weeks. Results showed that there were no significant effects on nutrient intake or digestibility, growth, and N balance due to either feeding higher levels of Zn or biotic stress. However, the serum Zn concentration was elevated in the groups fed higher zinc levels in both conditions. It is concluded that higher Zn up to 75.5 ppm in the diet of goats reared with or without biotic stress induced by repeated exposure of low-dose endotoxin does not affect nutrient utilization and performance but increases serum Zn levels under normal or endotoxin stress conditions.

Keywords: Digestibility, Endotoxin, Metabolism, Rectal temperature, Zinc

*Corresponding author: sejadhav1@gmail.com


Shindhe, B., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, P., Singh, B.R. and Kala, A. 2024. Comparative assessment of essential oils for antioxidant and anti-microbial potential against common enteric pathogens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 31-45.

Six essential oils, oregano (Origanum vulgare) oil, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) leaf oil, cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) bark oil, clove (Syzygium aromaticum) leaf oil, ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) oil, and clove (S. aromaticum) bud oil were assessed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove leaf oils showed larger zone of inhibition and lower MIC against the pathogenic bacteria viz., strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sps. compared to other essential oils. These three most effective oils were checked for their antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS and total nitric oxide assay. The results revealed that cinnamon bark oil had higher antioxidant activity than oregano and clove leaf oils. Further, some combinations of these three oils showed a synergistic anti microbial effect (FIC<0.5) against selective pathogenic bacteria tested. Overall among all the six essential oils, cinnamon bark oil showed the lowest MIC with higher zone of inhibition (ZOI) for most of the pathogens studied. Among the three best oils, cinnamon bark oil was superior to oregano oil and clove leaf oil for antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Essential oils, Enteric pathogens

*Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com


Manna, T.K., Kumar, S., Sardar, P., Sahu, N.P., Jayant, M., Chowdhury, D.K., Patel, A., Varghese, T., Husain, N. and Maiti, M.K. 2024. Evaluation of fermented Moringa oleifera leaf meal as mustard oil cake replacer in Labeo rohita fingerlings production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 47-64.

A 8-week feeding trial was carried out to test moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal (MOLM) as a replacer for mustard oil cake in feeds for juvenile-Labeo rohita (initial mass 5.27±0.01 g). Solidstate fermentation of MOLM (FMOLM) was performed using Aspergillus niger. Five iso-nitrogenous (31% crude protein) and iso-caloric (350 kcal/100 g) diets were prepared with different levels of MOLM by replacing mustard oil cake (MOC) viz., Control (0% MOLM), MOLM15 (15% MOLM), MOLM30 (30% MOLM), FMOL15 (15% FMOLM) and FMOL30 (30% FMOLM). One hundred and ninety-five acclimated juveniles were distributed into five experimental groups (Tank size 1000 L) in triplicate, and they were fed daily twice up to satiation. The FMOLM15 group showed significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and lower feed conversion ratio among different treatments. Protease, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly (P<0.05) higher in FMOLM15 compared to FMOLM15 and FMOLM30 groups. The addition of MOLM enhanced the superoxide dismutase and catalase, however, their activities were found reduced in the fermented MOLM groups. In conclusion, 15% MOLM can be incorporated into the diet of L. rohita without compromising the growth of fish. However, fermented MOLM can be utilised up to 30% level in the diet of L. rohita, ensuring its better growth.

Keywords: Feed formulation, Growth, Hepatic enzymes, Labeo rohita, Solid-state fermentation

*Corresponding author: sikendra@cife.edu.in


Sainary, B., Sharma, D., Talukdar, A., Phukan, B. and Bhagawati, K. 2024. Effect of fish meal replacement with chicken viscera meal on growth performance, haematology and intestinal histology of sperata seenghala fingerlings. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 65-75.

A feeding trial of 90 days was conducted to illustrate the effect of fish meal replacement with chicken viscera meal (CVM) at varying levels on the growth and haematological parameters of Sperata seenghala fingerlings. About 360 S. seenghala fingerlings (initial wt 9.2±0.4 g) were randomly distributed into 12 cemented cisterns for each treatment groups in triplicates with 30 fish in each cistern following a completely randomized design (CRD). Four isocaloric (360 kcal/100g) and isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) diets were prepared replacing fish meal with chicken viscera meal (CVM) at 0 (CVM0), 30 (CVM30), 50 (CVM50) and 75% (CVM75) and fed to the experimental groups. After 90 days of feeding trial, the final weight (g), weight gain (%), specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher (P<0.05) with significantly lower (P<0.05) food conversion ratio in the CVM30 group than that of CVM50 and CVM75 groups. No significant (P>0.05) variations were observed for haematological parameters such as red blood cells count, white blood cells count and haemoglobin content among all the treatment groups. Higher level of CVM above 30% in the diet did alter the histological structure of intestine having fusion of villi with elongation of the mucosal folds and increased number of mononuclear cells. It may be concluded that 30% of dietary fish meal can be replaced by chicken viscera meal in the diet of S. seenghala fingerlings without compromising growth performance and health status.

Keywords: Chicken viscera meal, Fish meal, Growth, Haematology, Sperata seenghala

*Corresponding author: avinashicarfish@gmail.com


Singh, A.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi M.P.S. 2024. Effect of supplementing herbal feed additives on the fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production by total mixed rations with different roughage to concentrate ratios. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 77-92.

This study was taken up to assess the effect of supplementing dry extracts of six herbss containing saponins [HFAs; kulthi (Dohichos biflorus), patha (Cissampelos pareria), aritha (Sapindus trifoliatus), methi (Trigonella foenum graecum), shikakai (Acacia concina) and shatavari (Asparagus racemosus)] in total mixed rations (TMR) on the in vitro methane emission and nutrient utilization. TMR with different roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio of 80:20, 75:25, 70:30 and 65:35 on DM basis were formulated and HFAs were supplemented @ 1-3% on dry matter basis. Aritha had the highest (P<0.01) concentration of both water and methanol soluble saponins and condensed tannins (leucocyanidins). Patha followed by kulthi had the highest (P<0.01) concentration of vitamin C, flavonoids, total phenols and true tannins. The data were analyzed by 2 (incubation periods) x 6 (Type of HFAs) x 4 (Levels of HFAs) x 4 (R:C ratios) factorial design. The digestion kinetic parameters revealed that with the increase in level of concentrate in the diet, irrespective of type and level of HFAs supplemented, the lag period for fermentation of diet decreased (P<0.01) linearly. In-vitro gas production studies concluded that the herbal feed additives like patha, kulthi and shatavari rich in bioactive compounds supplemented at the rate of 2% to the TMR containing roughage to concentrate ratio of of 65:35 on DM basis improved the net gas production, nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid production, feed conversion efficiency ME availability and mitigated methane emmision.

Keywords: Fermentation pattern, Herbal feed additives, In vitro, Methane emission, Nutrient utilization, TMR

*Corresponding author: bakshimps2@gmail.com


Padmakumar, V., Ravi, D., Rupam, B., Kanwar, S., Ramakrishna, R., Prasad, K.V.S.V., Sharada, P., Vivek, K., Ajaykumar, M., Pratim, D.R., Joshi, K.D. and Jones, C.S. 2024. Genetic variation for grain yield and straw quality traits in 55 diverse rice varieties in Assam. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 93-103.

Grain yield, straw quantity and quality traits were investigated in 55 rice varieties cultivated in Assam, India. Out of the 55 varieties, 31 cultivated by farmers were grown over two consecutive years. Varieties were measured for grain yield (GY), straw yield (SY), straw nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), silica, metabolizable energy (ME) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Highly significant (P<0.0001) differences were found among the varieties for GY and SY, and for all straw fodder quality traits in the 31 cultivated varieties. The ranges for GY and SY varied by 1.6 fold, the straw N varied by two fold and all other traits varied by over one fold. Although it had no effect on GY, year had a highly significant effect on SY and straw fodder quality traits, except for N. Interactions between varieties and years were consistently significant. Broad sense heritabilities (H2) were highest for GY (0.96) and SY (0.72), ADF and ME had intermediate H2 of 0.52, and, ADL and IVOMD had low H2 of 0.2 and 0.28, respectively. Grain yield and SY were positively correlated (r=0.51, 0.003), whereas none of the straw quality traits were significantly associated with GY. SY was inversely associated with ADF (r=–0.38, P=0.03) and silica (r=–0.57, P=0.0007) and positively associated with ME (r=0.59 P=0.0005). IVOMD was not significantly correlated with GY suggesting that varieties can be bred simultaneously for both the traits. In fact, the variety with the highest straw IVOMD was in the ten highest grain yielders. The present study shows that two rice varieties had both superior straw quality (IVOMD 45%) and reasonably good grain yield (5.4 t/ha) compared to the others and hence can be promoted among farmers for their cultivation.

Keywords: Digestibility, Dual purpose, Livestock feed, Selection, Variation

*Corresponding author: v.padmakumar@cgiar.org


Jackqulinwino, A., Ahilan, B., Chidambaram, P., Uma, A., Antony, C. and Ruby, P. 2024. Effect of jaggery based biofloc meal supplementation on growth, digestive enzymes and disease resistance in Penaeus vannamei in recirculatory aquaculture system. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 105-119.

A 60 days experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of jaggery based biofloc meal on growth performance, digestive enzymes activities and resistance against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Penaeus vannamei in Recirculatory Aquaculture System (RAS). The biofloc was prepared using jaggery as carbon source at 20:1 C/N ratio in outdoor biofloc development tanks, graded and powdered to use for dietary inclusion levels viz., 5 (T1), 10 (T2), 15 (T3), 20% (T4). P. vannamei with an average body weight of 0.58±0.4g were stocked with stocking density of 200 /m3 in indoor RAS (5x3=15) tanks (Length×Breadth× Height: 1×1×1 m) in triplicate following a completely randomized design. Among the treatment groups, 15% biofloc powder supplementation showed the highest mean weigh gain, SGR, FER, PER and lowest FCR followed in T4. The treated groups exhibited an enhanced amylase, protease, and lipase activity compared to control. Moreover, 15% biofloc powder supplementation (T3) showed significantly higher resistance against V. parahaemolyticus with high survival rate as compared to other groups. The hepatopancreas of T3 group showed high number of B and R cells with healthy lumen followed by T4, and T2 whereas, the control lacked B and R cells, degeneration of tubule lumen and hemocytic infiltration. The study confirmed that the inclusion of jaggery based biofloc meal at 15% level in shrimp feed could enhance the growth performance, survival rate, digestive enzymes and resistance against pathogenic bacterial infection activity in RAS based system.

Keywords: Biofloc meal, Digestive enzyme, Growth, Jaggery, Penaeus vannamei, RAS

*Corresponding author: rubyfcri@gmail.com


Shettiwar, S.N., Patel, V.R., Padheria, Y.D., Rao, T.K.S., Kumar, B. and Raval, A.P. 2024. Heat stress ameliorative effect of guanidinoacetic acid and bee pollen supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and blood biochemical status in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 121-135.

The study was undertaken to assess the heat stress ameliorative effect of Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and Bee pollen (BP) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and haemato-biochemical parameters in broiler chicken under heat stress (HS). One hundred and sixty (160) one week old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four homogenous dietary treatment groups with four replicates each (10 chicks/ replicate) for a period of 5 weeks (2nd to 6th). The treatments comprised of T1- without heat stress and without supplementation, while T2 to T4 were reared under heat stress, where T3 and T4 was supplemented with GAA (1.2 g/kg) and BP (10 g/kg), respectively. Supplementation exerted significant (P<0.05) improvement in feed intake during finisher stage, where weekly, total and average feed intake was found high (P<0.05) in BP supplementation (T4). GAA (T3) and BP (T4) supplementation improved (P<0.05) digestion, metabolizability and retention of major nutrients compared to HS subjected group (T2). There was significant improvement in body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P<0.05); highest weight gain and feed conversion ratio was observed in GAA supplemented group (T3). HS (T2) resulted in decreased SOD and GSH with increased level of lipid peroxidation marker MDA (P<0.05). GAA and BP supplementation alleviated the metabolic stress by improving hematological indices, blood-biochemical and serum antioxidant status of birds. Based on findings, it was concluded that the supplementation of GAA and BP at 1.2 and 10 g/kg feed, respectively can ameliorate the effect of heat stress and improve performance of birds.

Keywords: Amelioration, Bee pollen, Broilers, Growth, Guanidinoacetic acid, Heat stress, Nutrient utilization

*Corresponding author: vrpatel@kamdhenuuni.edu.in


Chakma, J., Kaur, N., Namdeo, S., Patir, M., Dutta, N., Jadhav, S.E., Singh, G. and Singh, S.K. 2024. Effect of Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos leaves supplementation on gas production kinetics and feed degradation with cattle inoculum. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 137-148.

This study investigated the effects of supplementing Murraya koenigii (curry), Aegle marmelos (bel) and their mixture on gas production kinetics and feed degradation with cattle inoculum. The roughage and concentrate (60:40) were used as substrate. The curry, bel powder and their mixture (50:50) were incorporated to the substrate at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 50% levels of dry matter (DM). The volume of total gas produced was measured at different incubation times (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h). The potential gas production (b) was reduced significantly (P<0.01) beyond 20% level of supplementation (curry, bel and their mixture). However, fractional rate of fermentation (c) was increased (P<0.01) up to 50% level of supplementation. The half-time (tt/2) of gas production was found to be significantly decreased (P<0.01) by the addition of supplements up to 40 % level, however, in leaves mixture groups t 1/2 was reduced at 50% level. The gas volume at t1/2 was significantly reduced (P<0.01) from 10% onwards with the addition of curry, bel and their mixtures. However, truly degradable dry matter (TDDMR), truly degradable organic matter (TDOMR) and TDMOR % were similar amongst different treatment groups. Microbial biomass production (MBP) (mg/200 mg) and partitioning factor (PF) were increased (P<0.01) from 20% onwards in all the treatment groups. Voluntary feed intake potential was significantly (P<0.01) higher up to 50% level of supplementation in curry and bel. Hence, it may be concluded that supplementation of , M. koenigii, A. marmelos and their mixtures significantly increased fractional rate of fermentation and efficiency of microbial biomass production.

Keywords: Aegle marmelos, Fermentation kinetics, Gas production, Murraya koenigii, Substrate degradation

*Corresponding author: julichakma2298@gmail.com


Gopi, M., Prabakar, G., Pearlin, B.V., Shanmuganathan, S., Kolluri, G., Tamilmani, T., Madhupriya, V., Mohan, J. and Tyagi, J.S. 2024. Feeding Moringa oleifera improved reproductive performance in aged egg type breeder chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 149-159.

A biological experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOF) on productive and reproductive performance in layer breeders. A total of sixty-four adult white leghorn males of about fifty-five weeks of age were divided into four treatments in which each treatment carried sixteen birds based on their body weight. The birds were reared in individual cages and fed with Control (Basal diet), T1 (0.1% MOF), T2 (0.15% MOF) and T3 (0.2% MOF). Biweekly body weight and feed consumption were recorded for individual birds. Blood was collected from wing vein and analysed for haematological parameters and blood plasma biochemicals. Seminal plasma biochemicals, antioxidant enzymes and fertility were recorded. The body weight and feed intake were reduced (P<0.05) in M. oleifera supplemented groups. Serum total protein and triglycerides level were higher (P<0.05) in treatment groups than control group. No significant difference was noticed in blood haematological parameters and semen biochemical parameters. Higher glutathione peroxidase activity was observed in higher dose of MOF supplemented groups. The MOF (0.10%) supplemented group had higher (P<0.05) fertility per cent compared to all the other treatment groups. In conclusion, the feeding of M. oleifera leaf powder at 0.10% level improved the reproductive performance and fertility in aged egg type breeder chickens.

Keywords: Body weight, Egg type breeders, Fertility, Moringa oleifera, Performance

*Corresponding author: gopsgopi72@gmail.com


Varshini, S.V., Jayanthi, C., Gopi, M., Karthikeyan, R., Sivakumar, S.D. and Senthil, A. 2024. Effect of micro irrigation and crop establishment methods on growth, physiological parameters, quality and production of bajra napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 (Pennisetum glaucum L. × Pennisetum purpureum schumach). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 161-176.

An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of irrigation methods and crop establishment methods on sprouting, establishment, growth, physiological parameters, quality and fodder yield of bajra napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum glaucum L. × Pennisetum purpureum schumach) at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The experiment was laid on a strip plot design comprising of irrigation methods and crop establishment methods with 03 replications. The subsurface drip irrigation significantly increased the growth, physiological parameters, crude protein yield (8.85 t/ha/year), green (335.0 t/ha/year) and dry (71 t/ha/year) fodder yield. Horizontal planting of setts with sett treatment showed significantly higher sprouting, establishment per cent, growth parameters, crude protein yield (8.99 t/ha/year), green (331.5 t/ha/year) and dry (71.4 t/ha/year) fodder yield. Growth, physiological and quality parameters showed positive correlation to green fodder yield except crude fiber content on bajra napier hybrid grass. Hence, subsurface drip irrigation and horizontal planting of single budded setts with sett treatment should be adopted to obtain the maximum sprouting, establishment, growth, quality, green and dry fodder yield.

Keywords: Bajra napier hybrid grass, Crop establishment, Micro irrigation

*Corresponding author: varshuagri08@gmail.com


Kumar, R., Goswami, M., Pathak, V. and Singh, A. 2024. Effect of binder inclusion on poultry slaughter house byproducts incorporated pet food characteristics and palatability. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 177-191.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of binders on quality characteristics of poultry slaughter house byproducts incorporated pet food. Poultry byproducts incorporated pet food was treated with different binders viz. ragi flour and boiled potato mash separately at three suitable concentrations i.e. 5, 10, and 15% replacing rice flour in control and baked in hot air oven at 150°C for 20-25 minutes. Ragi flour @10% (RG) and boiled potato mash @10% (PO) were found optimum on the basis of palatability test. Finally, RG and PO were compared with control pet food for various physico-chemical properties and palatability test. For ragi flour as well as boiled potato mash, there was no significant difference in pH values and fat content, whereas baking yield, moisture, protein, ash content and water activity values increased significantly (P<0.05) in treatments. There was significant (P<0.05) difference in many textural and colour parameters among in different binders incorporated pet food. There was no significant difference in sensory scores up to 10% ragi flour as well as 10% boiled potato mash in pet food. Ragi flour incorporated pet food showed higher amount of omega-6 fatty acids and PUFA than control and other treatments. Therefore, it was concluded that cost effective pet food could be developed by incorporating 50% poultry byproducts powder, 10% carrot powder and 10% ragi flour with appropriate nutritive values. The cost of production for poultry byproducts incorporated fiber fortified pet food with 10% ragi flour and 10% boiled potato mash was Rs 191.10 and Rs 193.23/kg, respectively

Keywords: Binders, Cost effective, Palatability test, Pet food, Poultry byproducts powder

*Corresponding author: dr.goswami2008@yahoo.co.in


Fickler, A., Francesch, M., Kore, K. and Mandal, A.B. 2024. Tolerance on supplementation of sraded levels of novel β-mannanase (Natupulse® TS) in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 193-201.

A study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of broiler chickens to the β-mannanase (Natupulse® TS, β-1,4-mananase product), when administered at different levels up to a more than 100-fold of the recommended dose during 35 d. Day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 strain) were allocated to five dietary treatments with nine replicates each in RBD. The dietary treatments consisted of a control diet supplemented with ß-mannanaseat 0, 400, 800, 1200 and 100000 TMU/kg feed and were fed in three phases (0-14 d, 14-28 d and 28-35 d of age). During the entire study period (0-35d), the performance parameters (body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) did not differ statistically (P>0.05) amongst the dietary treatments. The dietary inclusion of β-mannanase at more than 100-fold of the recommended dose was not affecting performance and mortality of birds during entire growth phase (0-35 d of age). Thus, it was concluded that the β-mannanase administered at 100-fold higher (100000 TMU/kg feed) than recommended dose is well tolerated by broilers chickens and thus, oral supplementation of β-mannanase is safe for poultry.

Keywords: β-mannanase, Broilers, Performance, Tolerance

*Corresponding author: kumar.kore@basf.com


Beigh, Y.A., Ganai, A.M. and Ahmad, H.A. 2024. In vitro fermentation of total mixed ration containing graded levels of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium Linn.) herb. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 203-213.

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Wormwood) herb at different doses (0-control, 1.50, 3.00, 4.50, 6.00 and 7.50% DM) on in vitro fermentation of oats straw based total mixed ration (TMR) using sheep rumen liquor. With the increase inincorporation level of the herb, net gas production, metabolisable energy content, short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial protein production increased (P<0.01) linearly upto 4.50% DM level (L3 ) with no apparent added benefits at further higher levels. Wormwood herb inclusion upto the dose of 4.50% DM improved (P<0.01) degradability of dry matter (57.62±0.19), organic matter (60.77±0.10) and neutral detergent fibre (36.94±0.08) with constant values thereafter. The fermentation characteristics response also revealed improvements (P<0.01) upto L3 level of the herb addition with no effect on ammonia-N and non-protein nitrogen contents. Total volatile fatty acids production was the highest (P<0.01) in TMRs added with 4.50 (87.67±0.41) and 6.0% (88.43±0.79) of the herb which corresponded to the lowest (P<0.01) pH values for the levels (6.86±0.01 and 6.84±0.01, respectively). It is concluded that wormwood herb incorporation dose of 4.50% DM can be used to improve utilization efficiency of oats straw based TMR.

Keywords: Fermentation metabolites, In vitro nutrient degradability, Oats straw, Wormwood

*Corresponding author: vetyasir1@gmail.com


Jena, P.P., Patra, R.C., Agrawal, A., Jena, B.R., Sahoo, R., Das, D.P., Kumar, D., Mishra, S.K. and Beura, C.K. 2024. Dietary supplementation of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) powder protects White Pekin ducks exposed to hot and humid shed environment during summer from stress-induced alterations in the serum biochemical parameters. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 215-226.

The present investigation was carried out to examine the ameliorative effects of supplementing feed with licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) powder on heat stress impacts in duckling. Twenty-four three weeks old White Pekin ducklings, randomly divided into four groups with six birds in each, were used for the present investigation for a period of 42 days in the month of May and June in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. The maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity recorded in the shed was 36.33±0.47°C and 25.57±0.32°C and 87.17±0.36% and 64.20±0.92%, respectively along with prevailing hot air waves, exposing the birds to heat stress. All the trial birds were kept in deep litter system with ad libitum feeding and watering. One group of ducklings served as positive control (group I) and the birds were given only the basal diet. The treatment groups such as group II, III and IV were provided with licorice powder @ 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of feed, respectively for a period of 42 days. Feed supplementation with licorice powder at the dose rate of 1000 mg/kg during 3rd to 9th week of age reduced stress and growth retardation in duckling due to high ambient temperature and humidity as evident from reduced LDH, AST, ALT, triglyceride, cholesterol, urea and enhanced glucose, total protein, ALP, Ca, P and uric acid.

Keywords: Biochemical parameters, Enzyme activity, Heat stress, Licorice, White Pekin duck

*Corresponding author: rcpatra@gmail.com


Agashe, J., Deo, C., Biswas, A., Mukesh, N., Divya, Bhanja, S.K., Jadhav, S.E. and Vikas, B. 2024. Effect of feeding different dietary levels of zinc and iron on growth performance immune response and hematological parameters of growing turkey poults. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 24: 227-238.

Present study was undertaken to examine the effect of variable dietary levels of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) (lower level < NRC recommendation < higher level) on growth performance, immune response and hematological parameters of growing turkey poults. Three Zn levels (50/45, 70/65 and 90/ 85mg/kg), each at three different levels of Fe (73/67, 80/67 and 100/80 mg/kg) were used during 0-4/ 5-8 weeks of age. A total of 288 (9×4×8) day old turkey chicks of uniform body weight were randomly distributed into 9 treatments. Results indicated significantly (P<0.01) higher body weight gain and better feed conversion efficiency at 70/65 and 90/85 mg Zn/kg diet during 5-8 and 0-8 weeks of age. Significantly (P<0.01) higher humoral immune response was recorded in dietary combination of 90/85 mg Zn with 100/ 80mg Fe/kg diet followed by 70/65 mg Zn with 100/80 mg Fe/kg diet, 90/85 mg Zn with 73/67 mg Fe/ kg diet and 50/45 mg Zn/kg diet 80/67 mg Fe/kg diet than those recorded in dietary combinations. Significantly (P<0.01) higher humoral immune response was recorded at 100/80mg Fe/kg diet than those recorded in other levels of Fe. Significantly lower H:L ratio was observed in a dietary combination of 90/85 mg Zn/kg diet with 80/67 mg Fe/kg diet. Based on the results, it may be concluded that a dietary combination of 90/85 mg Zn with 100/80 mg Fe/kg diet was found adequate for optimum growth performance, immune response and hematological parameters of growing turkey poults during 0-4/5-8 weeks of age.

Keywords: Growth performance, Hematological parameter, Immune response, Iron, Turkey poults, Zinc

*Corresponding author: jayantiagashe@gmail.com