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Joshna, M., Ahilan, B., Uma, A., Chidambaram, P., Prabu, E. and Ruby, P. 2023. Effect of selenium nanoparticles fortified diet on the growth performance, hematological responses, whole-body composition, intestinal microflora and histological alterations of GIFT. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 455- 468.

A 60-day, feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary selenium nanoparticles on growth and physiological responses of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Four experimental diets were formulated by incorporating selenium nanoparticles at 0 (basal diet), 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/kg of diet. The experiment was conducted in triplicate. Trough (40 L capacity) was stocked with 20 fingerlings with an average body weight of 0.87±0.02 g. At the end of the experimental trial, growth performance and nutrient utilization, hemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit and lactic acid bacteria counts in intestine were significantly improved in fish fed selenium nanoparticles at 0.75 mg/kg of diet compared to control but no significant influence on the whole-body composition of GIFT tilapia was observed. The histopathological changes that occurred in the intestine and gills were mild fusion of villi, mild degeneration of surface epithelium in intestine, multifocal mild degeneration and necrosis of secondary gill lamellae at higher concentration. Second-order polynomial regression analysis clearly affirmed that the optimum dietary selenium nanoparticles supplementation concentration in the diet at 0.64 mg/kg level to increase the growth and physiological performance of GIFT.

Keywords: GIFT, Growth performance, Hematology, Histology, Selenium nanoparticles

*Corresponding author: rubyfcri@gmail.com


Rathaur, A., Rai1, D.C., Prakash, V. and Yadav, A.K. 2023. Effect of dietary supplementation of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed on carcass traits, nutrient utilization, cost economics and blood biochemistry in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 469-478

A total of 200 male broiler chicks (Cobb 400) of one-day-old were fed a basal diet over a week. After one week, chicks were randomly allotted to five treatment groups in completely randomized design, i.e. one which were fed with the basal diet (control), and others fed with different levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%) of safflower seed, respectively. Each treatment included five pens with eight chicks. The diet was formulated into two phases: starter phase (7-21d) and the finisher phase (22-42d). The carcass attributes were similar among the groups except abdominal fat. Abdominal fat was significant lower in treatment groups compared to control. The digestibility coefficient of crude fibre and crude protein was significantly different among the groups. Production cost of broiler birds was significantly different among the groups. Highest and lowest cost of live weight and dressed weight was found in 5% and 0% safflower seed groups, respectively. A significantly (P<0.01) increase in blood total protein and ALT levels in broilers fed with various levels of safflower seed was observed. The blood albumin, A:G ratio, creatinine and AST significantly (P<0.01) decreased with increasing levels of safflower in the diet. It was concluded that, safflower seed could be used as an oil seed source to decrease abdominal fat levels, improve nutrient utilization and blood biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Abdominal fat, Blood biochemical, Digestibility, Economic cost, Safflower seed

*Corresponding author: amancsa2014@gmail.com


Singh, A.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2023. Effect of supplementing herbal feed additives containing saponins to the total mixed ration on the enteric methane emission and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 479-489.

A 120 days growth study was conducted to assess the impact of dry extract of herbal feed additives (HFAs) containing saponins [Kulthi (Dolichos biflorus), patha (Cissampelos pareria) and shatavari (Asparagus racemosus)] supplemented at 2% of DM intake to total mixed ration (TMR) containing roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio of 65:35 on enteric methane emission, nutrient utilization and performance of male Murrah buffalo calves. The supplementation of diet with HFAs did not affect the DM intake, digestibility of nutrients, N-retention and gain in weight. The ruminal ammonia concentration was depressed, while that of TCA-N in the SRL was improved (P<0.01) in animals fed TMR supplemented with shatavari. The acetate concentration in the rumen decreased (P<0.05) while that of propionate (P<0.05) and butyrate (P<0.01) increased, resulting in lower acetate to propionate ratio (P<0.01) in animals fed TMR supplemented with HFAs. The enteric methane emission was the lowest (P<0.01) in animals fed TMR supplemented with kulthi in comparison to control and other HFAs supplemented groups. The rumen metabolites, blood profile and excretion of purine derivatives were not affected by inclusion of any of the HFAs. It may be concluded that kulthi (Dolichos biflorus) supplemented at 2% to TMR containing R:C ratio of 65:35, mitigated enteric methane production significantly without affecting nutrient utilization, and performance of buffalo calves.

Keywords: Buffalo calves, Enteric methane emission, Herbs, Purine derivatives, Rumen metabolites

*Corresponding author: bakshimps2@gmail.com


Kala, A., Agarwal, P., Chaturvedi, V.B., Vijayalakshmy, K., Rahman, H., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2023. Comparative nutrient utilization, enteric methane emission and rumen fermentation in Murrah buffaloes, Tharparkar and Vrindavani cattle maintained on similar plane of nutrition. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 491-498.

An experiment was conducted on 18 animals, 6 from each Murrah buffaloes, Tharparker and Vrindavani cattle to compare the nutrient utilization efficiency, methane emissions and rumen fermentation. The animals were fed wheat straw and concentrate mixture to meet their nutrient requirement for a period of 60 days. The total dry matter intake and digestibility of all the nutrients (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre) were similar in all the three groups. The enteric methane emission (l/kg DDMI) was also similar among the three groups. There was no difference in rumen pH, metabolites (ammonia-N, volatile fatty acids, lactic acid) and activities of carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase and protease in the breeds. The population density of total bacteria, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes, total fungi and methnaogens was also similar in the animals of all the three categories. The study revealed that the Murrah buffaloes, Vrindavani and Tharparkar performed similarly in terms of nutrient utilization efficiency, methane emissions and rumen fermentation when fed roughage based diet.

Keywords: Buffalo, Cattle, Methane, Nutrients digestibility, Rumen enzymes, Rumen metabolites, Rumen microbes

Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com


Sahar, N.U., Shoaib, M., Hamid, M.M.A., Ashraf, S., Yousaf, M., Nawaz, H. and Ahmad, F. 2023. Effect of supplementation of dry yeast on production efficiency, nutrient digestibility and economic efficiency in Japanese quails. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 499-507.

Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) has high resistance to certain diseases and its meat quality is optimum for human consumption. However, ingredients prices are increasing day by day and dry yeast supplementation can improve the production performance and reduces the cost of production. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dry yeast on production performance and nutrient digestibility in quail birds. Four hundred and eighty, day-old Japanese quail chicks were divided into 24 experimental units including 6 treatments, 4 replicates in each and 20 quail chicks in each replicate. Six levels (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) of dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in iso-proteic (21.5%) and iso-calorie (2880 kcal/kg) diets. Results showed higher (P<0.05) weight gain and improved FCR in birds fed 0.5% dry yeast. The protein efficiency ratio was improved (P<0.05) in birds received diet having 0.5% dry yeast. Dressing percentage, breast and thigh yield revealed non-significant differences (P>0.05). Further, organs’ weight i.e. liver, kidney, spleen and bursa were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). Crude protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in quail birds fed dry yeast than those received control diet. Economics data indicates that production cost per bird was reduced (P<0.05) with increasing dry yeast in quails’ diet. It can be concluded that the addition of dry yeast in quails diet improves production performance and economic efficiency.

Keywords: Dry yeast, Growth performance, Japanese quails, Nutrient digestibility, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

*Corresponding author: shoaib.imtiaz43@gmail.com


Reddy, J.B., Kishore, K.R., Kumar, D.S. and Latha, P.A. 2023. Effect of feeding paddy straw treated with maize spent liquor (MSL) on nutrients intake and utilization in crossbred calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 509-518.

The present experiment was carried out to study the effect of feeding paddy straw either untreated or treated with maize spent liquor (MSL) on intake, nutrient utilization and cost economics in crossbred calves. Eight crossbred calves (about 18 months old; Avg BW of 186.04±16.84 kg) were randomly divided into two equal groups (control and treatment). All the animals were offered a basal concentrate mixture along with untreated paddy straw (control group) and with 20% MSL treated paddy straw incubated for one day (treatment group). Crossbred calves in both the groups were fed to meet the nutrient requirements as per ICAR (2013) standards. Feeding of crossbred calves with 20% MSL treated paddy straw had no effect (P>0.05) on digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, and cellulose. All the crossbred calves were in positive N, Ca and P balance. The average DMI (% BW) of crossbred calves was comparable among the two treatment groups. The DCP expressed as % in the diet consumed was higher (P<0.01) in control as compared to treatment group, while the TDN content expressed as % in the diet consumed was similar between the groups. The DM, DCP, TDN and ME intakes expressed as g /kgW0.75 were similar between both the groups. Further, feeding 20% MSL treated paddy straw resulted in decrease in cost of feed /animal/day by Rs. 4.75 as compared to control. It was concluded that paddy straw treated with 20% MSL can be incorporated economically in the rations of crossbred calves without any adverse effects.

Keywords: Crossbred calves, Digestibility, Maize spent liquor, Nutrient utilization, Paddy straw

*Corresponding author: dr_rajakishore@yahoo.co.in


Bhawar, R.S. and Dixit, P.K. 2023. Technical efficiency of dairy farming in northern dry zone of karnataka: status and determinants. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 519-528.

The study was undertaken in Northern dry zone of Karnataka state with the objective to assess the technical efficiency of milk production with respect to different milch bovine species. The primary data on socio-economic aspects of milk production was collected from 240 milk producers from the study area. The Stochastic frontier production function analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency in the milk production. The mean technical efficiency, which is a measure of relative efficiency, was estimated to be 85.27% for crossbred cows, 72.56% for local cows and 84.98% for buffaloes. The parameters like years of experience in dairying and education status of farmers exerted positive influence and had statistical significance with the technical efficiency of milk production in the region.

Keywords: Dairy, Milk production, Stochastic frontier production, Technical efficiency

*Corresponding author: rsiddubhawar@gmail.com


Dinesh, R., Boobalan, S., Anand, C., Stephen, J. and Kumar, S. 2023. Comparative evaluation of different diets on the growth performance and body composition of asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) in HDPE marine cages. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 529-537.

Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is farmed in marine cages in India and several other East Asian nations using low-value or trash fish. These fishes require time to collect and store, and their use is also tied to issues of sustainability in farming practices and environmental deterioration. As a result, commercial balanced formulated feeds are essential for the spread of large-scale seabass farming. In order to achieve this goal, a study was conducted to compare the efficacy of commercial feed (CF) to trash fish (TF) for the growth performance and body composition of Asian seabass (13.3±0.2 cm) reared in HDPE marine cages for 8 weeks. Seabass growth performance on commercial feed was superior to that of trash fish. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was much lower in fish fed commercial feed (3.1±0.2) than in trash fish (4.6±0.3). Fish reared on trash fish, on the other hand, had improved body fatty acid composition and lower feed costs. There were no significant differences in water quality parameters when CF or TF were used. Fish fed TF had higher moisture and ash contents, whereas fish fed CF had the higher whole-body crude lipid content and were significantly different (P<0.05). Palmitic acid, a major saturated fatty acid (SFA) accounting for approximately 24-36% of total fat was ligher in fish fed TF. Fish fed CF had significantly (P<0.05) higher C18:1n-9 and C18:2n-6 while fish fed TF had significantly (P<0.05) higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The CF feed formulation met the nutritional needs of seabass, and had adequate nutrients levels to maintain consistently higher performance and meat quality over TF, however, the cost (Rs.) of production with CF was significantly higher than TF diet.

Keywords: Asian seabass, Body composition, Cage, Commercial diet, Trash fish

*Corresponding author: dinesh@tnfu.ac.in


Dey, S., Padhan, S., Samanta, I., Das, P. and Mandal, G.P. 2023. Effect of feeding an essential oil blend on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal health and humoral immunity in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 539-552

A study of 39 days duration was conducted on broiler chicken to ascertain the effect of an essential oil blend (EO), consisting of cinnamon oil, clove oil, and ajwain oil at equal ratio, on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal microbial composition, intestinal morphology and humoral immunity. A flock of 288, day-old mixed sex broiler chicks were allocated to four dietary treatments (each treatment consisted of 8 replicate pens with 9 chicks in each pen): basal diet (control; CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (AGP), CON + 250 mg/kg of the EO (EO250), and CON + 500 mg/kg of the EO (EO500). Supplementation of AGP improved (P<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and FCR during 1-14 d and 15-28 d, but not the overall (1-39 d) growth performance. Supplementation of EO had no effect on the above parameters. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM and CP was not affected by any of the treatments. The count of E. coli and Clostridium spp in the caecum was lesser (P<0.05) in the group receiving AGP, compared with control, EO250 and EO500 groups, while that of Lactobacillus spp. was not affected by dietary treatments. Supplementation of EO did not influence intestinal morphology, but AGP significantly increased (P<0.05) villi height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in comparison to the control, EO250 and EO500 groups. Antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) increased (P<0.05) following vaccination in the EO500 group compared to that in the control, EO250 and AGP supplemented groups. Serum catalase activity was higher (P<0.01) in EO500 group compared to other groups,while serum SOD activity was unaffected by treatments. In addition, the concentrations of serum glucose, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol were not influenced by dietary treatments. It could therefore be concluded that supplementation with 500 mg/kg EO blend had a positive effect on immune response and antioxidant status of broiler chicken, with no effect on growth performance.

Keywords: Apparent digestibility, Broiler chicken, Essential oil blend, Growth performance, Immunity, Intestinal health

*Corresponding author: gpmandal1@gmail.com


Setiasih, S., Abdurrahman, A.M., Anggraeny, Y.N., Rohaeni, E.S., Pamungkas, D. and Bakrie, B. 2023. Effect of addition of seasoned flour waste on digestion, haematology and growth parameters in sheep. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 553-564.

The study assessed the effect of seasoned flour waste as an ingredient of concentrate feed on digestion, growth, and haematology of sheep and to find ideal level of incorporation to sustain their growth. The research was conducted on 20 male sheep aged 6 to 8 months and weighed 14.91±1.76 kg. A completely randomised block design was followed with five treatment levels of seasoned flour waste incorporated into sheep feed (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%). Seasoned flour waste qualified as an energy source with a TDN level of 64.03%. The addition of seasoned flour waste as a source of carbohydrates in sheep feed at a 20% level (equal to 12.8% of the total ration) significantly increased the consumption of both dry and organic matter, except crude fibre, and also considerably improved the digestion of nitrogen-free extract. Furthermore, adding 12.8% seasoned flour waste in the total sheep feed did not alter the haematology and urea level but increased sheep’s average daily weight gain from 80.00 to 121.5 g/ day. The feed conversion ratio was improved from 8.24 to 6.15 kg feed/kg. It could be concluded that, inclusion of seasoned flour waste in the diet improved body weight gain and feed conversion ratio without affecting the blood profile in sheep. Seasoned flour waste helped in enhancing the feed efficiency of fattening sheep, reducing the cost : growth calculation and increasing the income over feed cost.

Keywords: Digestion, Fattening sheep, Growth, Haematology, Seasoned flour waste

*Corresponding author: bachtarbakrie@yahoo.com


Hemalatha, T., Sakthivel, P.C., Vasan, P., Amutha, R. and Purushothaman, M.R. 2023. Effect of supplementation of different sources of lauric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 565-576.

A study was conducted in 252, day-old commercial broiler chicks (Cobb 400) to assess the efficacy of supplementation of different sources of lauric acid on performance, carcass characteristics and economics for five weeks.The chicks were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatment groups, with six replicates of six chicks in each treatment. The diet of negative (T1) and positive control (T2) groups was consisted of basal diet without antibiotic and with antibiotic (oxytetracycline @ 50 g/ton), respectively. The experimental dietary groups were fed basal diet with lauric acid (LA) @ 500 g/ton (T3); monolaurin @ 300 g/ton (T4); palm kernel oil @ 1005 g/ton (T5); virgin coconut oil @ 974 g/ton (T6) and LA @ 500 g/ton, caprylic @ 3 g/ton and capric acid @ 34 g/ton (T7). The weekly body weight, gain in body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics and economics of incorporation of different sources of LA were assessed. The body weight and body weight gain at 5th week of age were significantly (P<0.01) higher in T3, T4, T5 and T7 groups comparred to T1. The feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) lower in monolaurin (T4) fed group than other LA supplemented groups. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.01) better in all LA supplemented groups than control. The carcass characteristics such as eviscerated carcass weight, ready-to-cook weight and giblets weight were significantly (P<0.05) influenced, however weight of liver, heart, gizzard and abdominal fat were not affected by the supplementation of different sources of LA. Monolaurin (T4) supplemented group had better economical returns followed by palm kernel oil fed group (T5) as compared to other treatment groups. It may be concluded that different sources of LA especially monolaurin and palm kernel oil could be used effectively as a substitute for antibiotic growth promoters in the diet of broiler chicken.

Keywords: Carcass characteristics, Lauric acid, Monolaurin, Palm kernel oil, Production performance and Virgin coconut oil

*Corresponding author: sakthivelpc@gmail.com


Munde, S.G., Deshmukh, S.G., Pawshe, C.H., Ingawale, M.V., Kuralkar, S.V. and Deshpande, K.Y. 2023. Effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil on reproductive performance in repeat breeder cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 577-588.

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil on reproductive performance in repeat breeder cows. Total sixteen non-lactating crossbred (Bostaurus × Bosindicus; 330 to 375 kg body weight) repeat breeder cows were selected and divided into two equal groups. Cows from group T0 (control) were fed as per NRC (2001) to meet their nutrient requirements for maintenance and reproduction without any feed supplement; while cows form group T1 were fed as per regime of T0with dietary supplementation of soybean oil @ 3% of DM intake for 20 days. After feeding, cows from both the groups were synchronized with ovsynch protocol and inseminated with frozen semen at FTAI. The preovulatory follicle size were measured with ultrasonography (USG) before second dose of GnRh of ovsynch protocol. The estrus attributes and blood metabolites were studied; whereas pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasonography on day 35 of FTAI. The percent induced estrus response was numerically higher in T1 group. The cows from T1 group responded significantly (P<0.05) earlier to induced estrus than T0 group. The percent intense type intensity of estrus was numerically higher in T1 group. The size of preovulatory follicle was significantly larger (P<0.05) in T1 group. The first service conception rate was numerically higher in T1 group. The mean total cholesterol concentration showed significant increase (P<0.05) on day 20 post soybean oil treatment; whereas, the total protein and creatinine were comparable among the cows. It is concluded that supplementation of soybean oil @ 3% of DM intake before breeding improved the reproductive efficacy and serum cholesterol concentration in repeat breeder cows.

Keywords: Conception rate, Estrus attributes, Repeat breeder, Soybean oil

*Corresponding author:dr.sgdeshmukh@rediffmail.com


Gupta, L., Garg, R. and Dhuria, R.K. 2023. Effect of feeding different proportion of roughages on nutrient digestibility, intake and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 589-597.

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of feeding different proportions of roughages on nutrient utilization, intake and blood biochemical parameters in dromedary camels. The experiment was carried out in 3x3 latin square design using three dromedary camels of similar body weight (498-531 kg) and age (8-10 years). The animals were fed total mix ration (TMR) containing roughages and concentrate mixture in the ratio of 70:30. In roughages, soybean straw (Glycine max L.) and gram straw (Cicer arietinum L.) were mixed in one of the three ratios 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, which were designated as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. There was significant (P<0.05) difference between the treatments for DM digestibility but T1 and T3 were at par. However, the difference for OM, CF, EE, NFE, NDF and ADF digestibility was non-significant among the treatment groups. The DE and ME (Mcal /kg) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2. The DMI (%BW) ranged between 1.98-2.12 and was highest in T2 followed by T3 and T1. The DCPI and TDNI were also significantly higher in T2 as compared to T1 and T3. The difference for water intake was not affected by the treatment groups. There was change in blood biochemical parameters with response to treatments. The treatments groups did not show any significant effect on lactate, triglyceride, creatinine, phosphorus and calcium but the glucose, urea, cholesterol and aspartate transaminase contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2 than T3 and T1. It may be concluded that feeding of total mix ration with equal proportions of soybean straw and gram straw improved nutrient digestibility and utilization in dromedary camels.

Keywords: Blood biochemical, Dromedary camels, Feeding, Intake, Nutrient digestibility

*Corresponding author: lokgupta76@gmail.com


Kala, A., Kamra, D.N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2023. Effect of essential oils blend supplementation on correlation of metranscriptome of rumen microbes and rumen fermentation in Murrah buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 599-609.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of essential oil blend on rumen microbiome in a broad manner using metatranscriptomics and its correlation with fermentation in Murrah buffaloes. The essential oil blend (EOB) consisted of Cymbopogon citratus oil, Trachyspermum ammi oil, and Syzygium aromaticum oleoresin mixed in equal proportion and was supplemented to buffaloes at the rate of 0, 0.75 and 1.5 ml/100 kg of body weight in three groups, respectively. Correlation study was performed between fermentation attributes and rumen bacterial metatranscriptome to assess the interdependence and interaction of microbes on rumen fermentation and metabolites. There was a positive correlation of Methanobrevibacter with Butyrivibrio, Ruminococcus, Fibrobacter and Shewanella. Interestingly, archaea abundance and methane production were weakly correlated, whereas Methanobrevibacter had high positive correlation with methane production. Rumen enzymes involved in fibrous feed utilization like avicelase, β-glucosidase were highly positively correlated with Clostridium, Eubacterium, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Treponema, Alistipes, Fibrobacter, Paludibacter. In vitro feed fermentation also varied favorably with supplementation of EOB.

Keywords: Enzyme, Essential oil blend, In vitro, Metatranscriptome, Rumen microbe

*Corresponding author: anjukalavet2002@gmail.com


Shil, B., Sonowal, M., Gohain, A.K., Bhuyan, R., Borah, P. and Choudhury, D. 2023. Evaluation of clove oil supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass traits of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 611-619.

A total of 180 day, old Vencobb 400 strain broiler chicks were distributed randomly into 4 groups having 45 chicks with three replicates of 15 chicks in each. The experimental groups were supplemented with three different types of feed additives viz, T1 (Zinc Bacitracin @ 55mg/kg), T2 (Probiotic @150 mg/kg) and T3 (Clove oil @ 400 ppm) with T0 as control. The results of the experiment showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total weight gain (g) and better overall feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the groups T3 and T2 than the control and T1 group. Significantly (P<0.05) improved digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract and nitrogen retention was observed in the treatment groups. Abdominal fat percentage was lower (P<0.05) and prime cuts percentage was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the T3 and T2 groups than control. Protein percentage of meat was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the treatment groups, whereas fat percentage was lower in T3 and T2 groups as compared to control and T1. Broiler performance efficiency index was 80.57, 98.67, 102.53 and 115.48 for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The cost of feeding per kg live weight gain was (Rs) 69.27, 62.59, 61.63 and 61.76 in T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The study revealed that the supplementation of multi-strain probiotic @ 150 mg and clove oil @ 400 ppm increased the profit for broiler production.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Broiler chicken, Clove oil, Growth performance, Probiotic

*Corresponding author:


Vaswani, S., Saxena, A., Sachan, V., Kumar, V., Anand, M., Kumar, M., Kushwaha, R., Kumar, A. and Singh, S.P. 2023. Effect of feeding rumen-protected nutrients on growth, hemato-biochemical andreproductive performance of indigenous cattle heifers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 621- 629.

The study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bypass Protein (BP) and Bypass Fat (BF) either alone or in combination (BPF) on growth, haemato-biochemicals, energy markers and reproduction performance of indigenous heifers. A total of 40 non-cyclic cattle heifers were selected and were divided into four groups each having ten animals. The Control group was fed basal diet, T1 (BP): Basal diet (Concentrate mixture-II), in which mustard oil cake (MOC) in concentrate mixture was replaced with commercially available bypass protein (37% CP with 70% RUP of CP), T2 (BF): Basal diet (Concentrate mixture-III), with 2.5% bypass fat, T3 (BPF): Basal diet (Concentrate mixture-IV), in which MOC was replaced with bypass protein+2.5% of bypass fat. The diets in all the groups were kept nearly isonitrogenous and iso caloric. The experimental period was 60 days. Fortnightly body weight and daily DMI was recorded. Blood was collected at monthly interval. Cyclicity was observed by ultrasonographic examination and estrous was detected using teaser bull. Mean body weights of all the experimental animals at fortnightly intervals did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the groups. However, fortnightly body weight gain and average daily weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher in supplemented groups than control. The highest gain was observed in BPF (T3) group followed by BP (T1) and BF (T2) groups. Among the haemato-biochemical parameters, the plasma urea nitrogen was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T1 (BP) and T3 (BPF) groups as compared to control and T2 (BF). Plasma concentration of NEFA, insulin and BHBA showed no difference among treatment and control groups. Out of 10 heifers in each group, 7 in control group, 8 in T1 (BP), 9 in T2 (BF) and 9 in T3 (BPF) group showed estrus signs. On insemination, the percentage of animals conceived were higher in the treatment groups than control and among the treatment groups conception rate was highest in T3 (BPF) group followed by T1 (BP) and T2 (BF). Hence, it can be concluded that feeding of rumen protected bypass protein and fat in combination showed improvement in growth and reproductive performance than when fed alone.

Keywords: Bypass fat, Bypass protein, Growth, Hemato-biochemical, Reproductive performance

*Corresponding author: shalinee.gautam@gmail.com, shalini_vet@yahoo.com


Kumar, S., Singh, P., Devi, U., Yathish, K.R., Saujanya, P.L., Kumar, R. and Mahanta, S.K. 2023. An overview of the current fodder scenario and the potential for improving fodder productivity through genetic interventions in India. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 631-644.

Fodder crops are cultivated to feed livestock in the form of forage, silage and hay. The total area under cultivated fodders in India is 8.4 mha on individual crop basis. India is maintaining about 15% of total livestock population of the world in 2.29% of the global land area. At present, the country faces a net deficit of 35.6% green fodder, 10.95% dry crop residues and 44% concentrate feeds. The deficit may further rise due to consistent growth of livestock population at the rate of 1.23% in near future. It is, therefore, imperative that forage production and its quality must be augmented to improve productivity of livestock. The expansion of fodder cultivation area seems to be very low and fodder yields have touched plateau in most of forage crops. Even then, there is a great scope to enhance the forage productivity through crop improvement activities focused on development of dual type grain and fodder crop varieties, stay green maize/sorghum varieties and application of biotechnological tools to evolve genetically engineered improved varieties which are tolerant to abiotic and biotic stresses. Forage crop improvement also needs to be focused on understanding of species relationships, genome structure and chromosomal constitution, extent of gene exchange/recombination, putative parentage and nature of polyploidy along with normal breeding programs.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Forage improvement, Genetic intervention, Quality fodder

*Corresponding author: mahantask@rediffmail.com



Takalloo, Z., Nemati, R., Nikkhah, M. and Sajedi, R.H. 2023. Binding efficacy and prebiotic properties of commercial yeast cell walls toward aflatoxins and pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technolog, 23: 205-220.

Yeast cell wall (YCW) fractions are able to bind mycotoxins and pathogenic bacteria and therefore limit their bioavailability in the digestive tract of animals. Most of the available commercial YCW products in the livestock market are processed to achieve specific properties to use as toxin binders or prebiotics. Generally, due to the product processing and differences in product properties, it is difficult to find an efficient single YCW product in adsorbing mycotoxins and pathogens as well. This study aimed to compare the in vitro capacity of three commercially available yeast cell wall products used as dietary supplements. Accordingly, the adsorption test was performed using aflatoxins and results showed that all YCWs were able to capture the toxins, but to different degrees. In addition, qualitative agglutination test was performed to check the binding capacity of the YCW products for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains. Results showed that all added YCWs were able to form clumps with the strains, but YCW1 (KimiaMOS® ) showed a higher adherence to the pathogenic bacteria, and YCW2 (SafMannan® ) and YCW3 (TechnoMOS® ) also showed some agglutinations to different degrees. Moreover, results from colony forming unit (CFU) assay showed that YCW1 was more efficient in adhering pathogenic bacteria, however, it showed a lower optical density for both bacteria strains during the microplate binding assay. Besides, YCW3 showed a greater adherence capacity for pathogenic bacteria. The results from this study can provide a guideline for quality control of yeast cell wall products used in feed industry.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, Animal feed, Pathogenic bacteria, Prebiotics, Yeast cell walls

*Corresponding author: sajedi_r@modares.ac.ir


Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2023. Effect of feeding detoxified waste bread in total mixed ration on nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation pattern in adult buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 221-231

The present study was undertaken to detoxify the stale waste bread (WB) and evaluated its nutritional worth in the total mixed ration of adult male buffaloes. The aflatoxin B1 content in the WB before and after detoxification was 55 and 8 ppb, respectively. The in vitro gas production studies revealed that the net gas production (NGP), digestibility of nutrients and availability of metabolizable energy (ME) from WB was higher (P<0.05) than that from maize and wheat. The digestion kinetic parameters for DM and CP assessed by in-sacco technique revealed that the effective and true digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in WB followed by that in wheat and maize grains. For in vivo studies 12 adult male buffaloes (BW 443.0±3.60 kg) divided in to three groups were offered total mixed ration (TMR) containing concentrate mixture in which maize grains were replaced with WB at 0, 50 or 100% on N basis. The complete replacement of maize grains by WB did not show any adverse effect on the daily DM intake, digestibility of nutrients, N-retention, efficiency of N utilization and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in adult male buffaloes. For assessing the impact of these TMRs on the biochemical changes in the rumen, one diet was fed at a time for 30 days to three rumen fistulated male buffaloes. Different N-fractions in the rumen and fluid outflow rate from the rumen were also not affected by the level of WB in the ration of rumen fistulated male buffaloes. It was concluded that detoxified WB can be fed safely and that complete replacement of maize grains in the ration of adult buffaloes did not show any adverse effect on nutrient utilization and health of adult buffaloes.

Keywords: Buffaloes, Digestion kinetics, Nutritional evaluation, Rumen out flow rate, Waste bread

*Corresponding author: bakshimps2@gmail.com


Rokade, J.J., Saxena, V.K., Monika, M., Gopi, M., Tomar, S., Saran, S., Chandrahas and Ghotekar, C. 2023. Feeding of Bacillus subtilis as a potential probiotic feed supplement in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 233-246.

This study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis (BS) as a potential probiotic against control and antibiotic supplemented broiler chickens. Three experimental diets viz. T1 (controlBasal diet), T2 (BD + 50 g BS/ ton diet), and T3 (BD + 250 mg Bacitracin methylene disalicylate– BMD/kg diet) were supplemented to broiler chickens distributed in three groups which were further divided into three replicates each for period of six weeks (0-6 weeks). BS supplemented birds had significantly higher (P<0.01) body weight gain compared to BMD and control birds, whereas feed intake was intermediate to BMD and control birds. The feed conversion ratio of control birds was significantly (P<0.001) higher as compared to probiotic or BMD supplemented birds, which did not differ significantly from each other. Production efficiency factor and energy efficiency ratio at 6th week of age was higher in BS supplemented birds compared to other two groups. In contrary, protein efficiency ratio was lower in control group compared to the others. In control group, humoral immunity was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to other groups. The H:L ratio was lower in BS supplemented birds compared to others. The morphometry of intestinal epithelium of probiotic supplemented birds was superior to BMD fed and control birds. Therefore, it has been concluded that, the BS probiotic may serve as a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter in broiler chickens considering superior growth performance, immunity and gut health

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, Broiler, Gut health, Immunity, Fecal microbiota

*Corresponding author: jaydeepvet@gmail.com


Veeresh, H.B and Srinivas, B. 2023. Excretion pattern of purine derivatives and plasma TVFA in Bos indicus calves fed neonatal and preweaning diets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 247-260.

The excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and plasma total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) in Deoni (Bos indicus) calves from birth to 3 months of age is reported. Twenty calves were divided into the control group; female (CGF), male (CGM), and corresponding treatment groups; TGF and TGM. All calves were fed mixed green fodder (MGF) from the second week of birth and concentrate mixture (CM) after 28 d of age. Apart from the control diet, calves of TG were drenched 30 mL/d flaxseed oil (FSO) till day 28, followed by supplementing a 50 g bolus of ground flaxseed and jaggery in 1:1 till day 90. The average MGF intake of neonates and preweaning calves were 285 and 385 g/d, respectively. Total DMI in TGF or TGM was more (P<0.01) in preweaning calves than CGF or CGM. The digestible energy (DE) was significant (P<0.01) in neonates, but DM, OM, DE, cellulose, and non-fibrous carbohydrates were significant in preweaning calves. Plasma TVFAs in calves was < 2 mM/dL till 28 d, and gradually increased to 6 mM/dL at three month of age. Allantoin in total PD was 65%. Total PD excretion on days zero and 90 ranged from 7 to 13 mM/d, and the MBP flow to the duodenum was only 5 to 8 g/d. The efficiency of MBP production in calves was ≤ 1g/kg DOMI till day 75, and increased to 15 g/kg DOMI at three months. The study that documented the PD excretion pattern in calves, and MBP flow to the duodenum were not more than 8 g/d till three months, and MBP production efficiency improved after day 75. The drenching of FSO to neonates did not affect the MBP production, and supplementing bolus of flaxseed and jaggery during preweaning age improved the nutrient digestibility.

Keywords: Calf, Diet, Metabolism, Oesophageal groove, Rumen

*Corresponding author: drbandla.srinivas@gmail.com


Mandale, N.R., Deshpande, K.Y., Thakare, S.O., Morkhade, S.J., Panchbhai, G.J. and Deshmukh, S.G. 2023. Effect of dietary inclusion of mushroom waste on growth, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and economics in growing Berari goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 261-277.

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of partial inclusion of mushroom waste (MW) in concentrate mixture on performance, immune response, blood metabolite concentration and economics in growing Berari goats. Eighteen growing Berari goats of similar age (4-6 months) and average body weight (13.72±0.61 Kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups and fed for 90 days. The control group (MW0) received concentrate mixture as per ICAR (2013) feeding standards, whereas, MW5 and MW10 groups received concentrate in which protein source was replaced by MW at 5 and 10% respectively on CP basis. The fortnightly DM intake, body weight gain and nutrient digestibility were comparable among groups. The body condition score improved significantly (P<0.05) from 0 to 90 days. Total cost of production (Rs.) in MW5 and MW10 were lesser than MW0. Net profit per goat (Rs.) was the highest in MW10. It is concluded that dietary inclusion of MW up to 10 percent to replace protein source in concentrate mixture on CP basis would be beneficial to reduce production cost and improve growth performance in Berari goats.

Keywords: Berari goats, Growth performance, Mushroom waste (Agaricus bisporus)

*Corresponding author: kuldeepydeshpande@gmail.com


Farokhi, R., Rasouli, B., Seidavi, A. and Essuman, E.K. 2023. Hypericum perforatum extract in broiler diets: effect on growth performance, carcass components, plasma constitutes, immunity and caecum microflora. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 279-290.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) on the growth performance, immunity and caecum microflora during a 42 days production cycle of broiler chickens. A total of 200 one-day-old chicks allotted to five treatments with four replicate pens in a completely randomized design with each receiving antibiotic (virginiamycin), 0 (basal diet as control), 150, 300 and 450 ppm of HPE in drinking water from 1 - 42 days of age. The average daily feed intake, weight gain and gain-to-feed ratio were measured. The weight of the carcass and other anatomical parts were recorded after evisceration at the various weeks of growth. At the end of the study period (six weeks), blood samples were taken for the determination of HDL, LDL, glucose and triglyceride levels including the immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM and IgT). A non-significant increase in weight gain was observed as the concentration of the H. perforatum extracts was increased from 0 to 450 ppm. Different concentrations of the H. perforatum extracts did affect the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels. An increase in IgG, IgM and IgT was observed at 42 days of age. It can be concluded that supplementation of H. perforatum through drinking water did improve the performance of broiler chickens during a 42 days production cycle.

Keywords: Broilers, Carcass characteristics, Saint John’s-Wort, Virginiamycin

*Corresponding author: alirezaseidavi@iaurasht.ac.ir


Yuanjing, C., Chenxi, X., Zhengfeng, Y., Shourong, S., Xiaoli, W. and Haiming, Y. 2023. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, serum biochemistry and digestive tract development in broiler chickens fed with chitosan oligosaccharide. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 291-302.

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and digestive tract development of Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. A total of 360, 1-day-old male broilers were selected and randomly divided into four groups with six replicates (15 in each). The experiment was divided into a control group (fed basal diet) and experimental groups (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of COS in basal diet, respectively) and the birds were fed for 42 days period. The results reveled that addition of 150 mg/kg COS increased the average daily gain during 22- 42 d period (P<0.05). The relative weight of jejunum was reduced (P=0.05) in 200 mg /kg fed group compared to the control group. The duodenal villi length to crypt depth ratio in broilers fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg /kg COS was significantly higher than that of the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 100 mg /kg COS could increase the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: Broilers, Chitosan oligosaccharide, Digestive tract, Growth performance, Serum biochemical

*Corresponding author: yhmdlp@qq.com


Sharma, S., Katoch, S., Snakhyan, V., Mane, B.G. and Wadhwa, D. 2023. Effect of incorporating garlic (Allium sativum) powder and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) extract in an energy deficient diet on broiler chicken performance, nutrient utilization, haemato-biochemical parameters, carcass characteristics, and economics of production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 303-317.

The present study was carried out to determine the impact of phytobiotics on the performance of broilers. Vencobb-400day old broiler chickswere offered low energy density (LED) feed supplemented with phyto-additives viz. 0.5% garlic powder (GP5) and 0.1% cinnamon extract (CE1). The growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gut health, carcass characteristics and economics of broiler production were determined. Phyto-additive supplementation namely GP5, CE1 and combination of GP5+CE1in low energy density feed positively influenced growth, nutrient utilization with better feed to gain ratio (FCR). Overall CE1 supplementation in LED feed exhibited higher N retention exhibiting higher live weight gain and FCR as compared to combination of GP5+CE1. Higher dressing percentage, thigh yield and low abdominal fat with leaner meat was recorded on CE1 and GP5+CE1 supplemented groups. The organoleptic factors viz. flavor and overall acceptability of the meat was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by addition of CE1 and combination of GP5+CE1. Economics of broiler production revealed lower cost for producing per kg meat by CE1 supplementation whereas it was highest in GP5+CE1 supplementation. It could be concluded that, CE1 supplementation to LED broiler diet positively alter the bird’s physiological parameters, N retention and enhanced the dressing percentage, organoleptic qualities of meat, and reduced the cost of producing broiler meat by 5.6%.

Keywords: Broiler chicken, Carcass, Cinnamon, Economics, Feed conversion ratio, Garlic

*Corresponding author: ilarma786@gmail.com


Shete, P.B., Ramesh, J., Karunakaran, R., Raja, P. and Bandeswaran, C. 2022. Characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity study of copper and cobalt nano particles synthesized by physical method. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 319-332.

In the present study the nano copper and nano cobalt were synthesized by physical method using planetary ball mill. The synthesized nano particles were then characterised using Particle Size Analyzer, X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscope. The average particle sizes of nano copper and cobalt were found to be 84.8 and 93.5 nm, respectively. The zeta potential for nano copper and nano cobalt was found to be -18.0 mV and -13.9 mV, respectively. The particle size measured by XRD and TEM in the nano particle ranged from 1-100 nm. The XRD data showed the characteristic structure for the copper and cobalt. The FTIR analysis showed the presence of -OH and -SO4 in both copper and cobalt nanoparticles. The cell cytotoxicity study revealed dose dependent cell cytotoxicity of copper and cobalt nanoparticles. In conclusion, synthesis of nano copper and cobalt by physical method is promising field for large scale production to use for livestock feeding.

Keywords: In-vitro cytotoxicity assay, Nano cobalt, Nano copper, Nanoparticles, Physical method

*Corresponding author: rameshnutrition@gmail.com


Patir, M., Kaur, N., Dutta, N., Jadhav, S.E., Singh, G., Singh, S.K. and Chakma, J. 2023. Effect of Moringa oleifera foliage supplementation on nutrient utilization and metabolic profile in crossbred cattle. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 333-344.

The present experiment was conducted to ascertain the effect of feeding different levels of Moringa oleifera foliage on nutrients intake, digestibility and metabolic profile in crossbred cattle. Three fistulated adult male cattle (mean BW 474.97±1.79 kg) randomly allotted to CON, M-10 and M-20 group through a changeover 3×3 Latin square design. The CON group animals were given diet comprised of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and 10% berseem hay, while M-10 and M-20 groups animals were offered diets having 10 and 20% moringa foliage, by replacing berseem, concentrate mixture and wheat straw. The daily DMI and OMI was higher in M-10 compared to CON and M-20 groups. The nutrient (DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF) digestibility and blood parameters (Hb, haematocrit, glucose, total protein, albumin globilin, ALT, AST and Ca) levels were similar irrespective of treatment groups. The serum urea concentration was higher while total cholesterol level was lower in M-20 than CON group. Serum i-P, T3 and IGF-1 level was higher in M-20 followed by M-10 and CON groups. It can be concluded that moringa foliage @ 10% of diet can be used as fodder in ruminant ration without any negative consequences on palatability, digestibility and blood parameters.

Keywords: Crossbred cattle, Metabolic profile, Moringa oleifera, Nutrient utilization

*Corresponding author: mukeshpatir.mp@gmail.com


Singh, S., Koli, P., Bhadoria, B.K. and Singh, A. 2023. Nutritional composition, in vitro fermentation and methane production potential of tropical feed ingredients used in ruminants feeding. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 345-359.

Sixteen feed ingredients comprising of cereals, pulses and oilseed cakes were evaluated for nutritional composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics with sheep rumen inoculum. Crude protein (CP), crude fiber (NDF and ADF), cellulose, lignin, protein fractions (PA, PB1, PB2, PB3 and PC) and carbohydrate fractions (CA, CB1, CB2 and CC) of examined feed ingredients varied (P<0.0001). The total digestible nutrients (TDN), digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) contents were lower (P<0.05) in Chickpea chunnie-CC, rice chunnie-RC and cotton seed cake-CSC and higher (P<0.0001) ) in maize grain-MG, pearlmillet grain- PMG, barley grain-BG and wheat grain-WG. The NE values for lactation (NEL), maintenance (NEM) and growth (NEG) differ (P<0.0001) and were higher for cereal grains (BG and MG) and lower for byproducts (CC and RC). The total digestible non fibrous carbohydrates (tdNFC) values were lower (P<0.0001) for soybean meal-SBM and coconut cake-CNC and higher for oat grainOG, MG, BG and WG. In vitro gas production was highest (P<0.05) from CG (265.14) and lowest from RC (71.57 ml/g DM), while the CH4 production was lowest from WG and SBM (18.19 and 18.25 ml/ g DDM) and highest from cowpea grain-CG (59.65 ml/g DDM). Proportion of CH4 in gas was lower (P<0.0001) for WB, SBM and mustard seed cake-MSC feed ingredients. Loss of energy as CH4 was lower (P<0.0001) from WB, SBM, MSC and RC (3.05, 2.65, 3.52 and 2.39%) and highest for CG (9.55%). Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbial mass (MBM) were lower for RC (1.58 mM/ g DM and 137.6 mg/g DM) and higher for MG (5.82 mM/g DM) and CNC (534.0 mg/g DM). The DMD was lowest for RC (29.51%) and highest for GG (93.98%). Methane production (ml/g DDM) and CH4 % GE was lower for MSC, CNC, WG and SBM which may be used to formulate low methane emission diets for ruminants.

Keywords: Carbohydrate fraction, Energy value, Feed ingredients, Gas, Methane, Protein fraction.

*Corresponding author: kolipushpendra@gmail.com


Gica, W.T., Hailong, J., Oliha, E.A.S., Zhifeng, S., Kouzehua and Yanling, W. 2023. Effects of Pichia pastoris residue as a protein source on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, plasma amino acids, biochemicals and immunoglobulins in weaned piglets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 361-372.

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of Pichia pastoris residue (PPR) supplementation diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma amino acids, biochemical profile, and immunoglobulin of weaned piglets. A total of 48 piglets with an initial body weight of 8.99±0.23 kg were allocated randomly to three diets containing 0% (T0), 8.7% (T1), and 17% (T2) of PPR levels, for 28 days. The dose selection was based on protein quantity of SBM and PPR in diet. The average feed intake and daily weight gain decreased in T1 and T2 significantly (P<0.05) compared to T0 (control). However, the feed gain ratio was not affected. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude protein and fiber reduced (P<0.05) in treatment groups as compared to T0. The plasma concentration of lysine and threonine were not affected but methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and valine, decreased significantly in T1 and T2, whereas cysteine increased (P>0.05). Blood total protein and albumin decreased in T2 in comparison to T0, whereas glucose, triglycerides and urea nitrogen remained unchanged. The diet with a low level of PPR improved the immunoglobulin IgG and did not affect IgM in piglets. In conclusion, only two biochemical parameters, glucose and triglyceride improved in both treatments, plasma immunity only in T2, although there was a significant depression in the growth performance.

Keywords: Broiler chicken, Growth hormone, Insulin-like growth factor-I, Lysine, Methionine, Performance

*Corresponding author: wtutogica@gmail.com


Yattoo, M.A., Chaudhary, L.C., Kala, A., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2023. Effect of blend of essential oils as feed additive on rumen metabolites and rumen microbial status of buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 373-380.

Three adult rumen cannulated buffaloes (average body weight of 279±9.3 kg) were fed on wheat straw and concentrate mixture for maintenance requirement in 3x3 Latin square designs. The three dietary groups were as control with no additive (group 1), groups 2 and 3 with diet supplemented with blend of essential oils (BEO; ajwain oil, garlic oil, and cinnamon leaf oil in equal proportion) @ 0.15 and 0.30 ml/kg dry matter intake (DMI), respectively. The daily DMI was similar (P>0.05) in all the groups. There was no significant effect of BEO on ruminal pH, but ammonia-N was significantly lower in group 3 as compared to other two groups. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001) in lactate concentration in BEO supplemented groups as compared to the control. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, molar proportion of acetate and propionate and acetate: propionate ratio were similar in all the groups, whereas, butyrate proportion was significantly higher (P<0.001) in BEO supplemented groups. There was decreased xylanase activity in group 3, whereas, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase and protease remained unaffected. The BEO feeding did not exert any significant influence on the gene expression of methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogens, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, R. albus and fungi. However, gene expression of ciliate protozoa in group 3 was significantly lower (P<0.01) as compared to Groups 1 and 2. Analysis of mcrA gene library revealed a shift within various groups of methanogens without any change in the overall community of methanogens. The supplementation of BEO did not change rumen environment and the microbes very much. Reduction in protozoa population favors nutrient utilization hence the BEO can be used as rumen modifier.

Keywords: Buffalo feed additives, Essential oils, Plant secondary metabolites, Rumen fermentation, Rumen microbes

*Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com


Chakma, J., Samanta, A.K., Dutta, T.K. and Kumar, S. 2023. Effect of moringa leaf extract and clove bud oil alone or in combination on growth performance, immunity and carcass characteristic of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 381-394.

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of moringa leaf extract and clove bud oil on growth performance, nutrient utilization, immunity and carcass characteristic in broilers. Two hundred day old broiler chicks (Vencobb) were divided into five groups comprising of five replicates (n=5) for a period of 42 days. Five treatments: 1) basal diet (CON; without AGP, plant extracts and essential oil); 2) basal diet + Bacitracin methylene disalicylate (AGP) @ 0.5 g/kg of feed; 3) basal diet + Moringa oleifera leaf extract @ 0.55 g/kg of feed (MPE); 4) the basal diet + clove bud oil @ 0.6 g/kg of feed (CBO); and 5) basal diet + M. oleifera extract @ 0.55 g/kg of feed and clove bud oil @ 0.6 g/kg of feed (MPCBO). Final body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.01) in MPCBO as compared to other groups. FCR was tended (P=0.07) to be improved in CBO and MPCBO compared to other groups. Metabolizability of nutrients were not affected (P>0.05) except NFE which was significantly (P<0.01) higher in MPCBO. Serum biochemical parameters glucose, total protein, total cholesterol and triglycerides did not differ significantly among the treatment groups. Antioxidant profiles of serum, breast and thigh muscle were found to be non-significant among the groups. Antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus was not affected due to treatments. Five birds from each group were slaughtered after 42 days and vire was no difference in carcass characteristics among the groups. It can be concluded that clove bud oil (@ 0.6 g / kg) alone and /or in combination with moringa leaf extracts (@ 0.55 g /kg) have the potential to be used as alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.

Keywords: Antibiotic growth promoter, Broiler, Clove bud oil, Moringa leaf extract, Performance

*Corresponding author: julichakma9999@gmail.com


Arekatla, K., Devasena, B., Ravi, A., Shakeela, S. and Gangaraju, G. 2023. Replacing roughage with tree barks in the feeding of Nellore ram lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 395-402.

An experiment was carried out to study the effect of inclusion of different locally available tree barks in total mixed ration on performance and nutrient digestibility in Nellore ram lambs. A ninety-day feeding trail was conducted on twenty-eight Nellore Jodipi ram lambs (13.72±0.05 kg body weight), randomly allotted to four treatment groups with seven animals per treatment and were fed total mixed ration T1 (control), T2 (10% neem bark), T3 (10% tamarind bark), T4 (10% acacia bark). All the four total mixed rations were iso-nitrogenous. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in total weight gain, average daily gain (ADG), dry-matter intake (DMI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among different treatment groups. The final body weight was comparable among the groups. The apparent digestibilities (%) of OM, DM, CP, CF, NFE and ADF were comparable among the groups. Whereas NDF digestibility (%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control (T1) followed by T4 or T2 and lowest (P<0.05) in T3. The nitrogen balance was not affected by inclusion of different tree barks in the total mixed ration. Thus, inclusion of different tree barks viz., neem, tamarind and acacia in total mixed rations did not show any deleterious effects on overall performance in Nellore Jodipi growing ram lambs.

Keywords: Apparent digestibility, Growth performance, N-balance, Nellore ram lambs, Tree barks

*Corresponding author:arekatlakavya@gmail.com


Singh, J.K., Kumar, R., Gururaj, K., Swaroop, K. and Gupta, S. 2023. Effect of essential oils on in vitro methane production, rumen methanogens, volatile fatty acids and feed digestibility with goat rumen liquor. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 403-413.

Four essential oils (EOs), i.e. garlic oil (Allium sativum L., GO), garlic oil blend (Allium sativum L., GOB) clove oil (Eugenia spp., CO) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L., PO) at four dose levels; 0.0 g/L (D0 ) 0.25 g/L (D1 ), 0.5 g/L (D2 ), and 1.0 g/L (D3 ) of fermentation medium were evaluated for their influence on gas, methane production, rumen microbes, volatile fatty acids and feed digestibility using in vitro gas production system. Concentrate mixture and gram straw in 40:60 ratio and goat rumen liquor were used as substrate and incoculum. There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in gas production and methane production by the addition of EOs in a dose dependent manner. The per cent inhibition in methane production (ml /g DM) was maximum with GO and ranged from 38.5-92.7 at graded doses. The higher doses of EOs were detrimental for feed digestibility. Addition of PO and CO at lowest dose (0.25g /L) had no significant effect on methane production, in vitro true dry matter (IVTD) and organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) while GO decreased methane production (ml /DDM) and IVTD by 27.20 and 3.6% The proportion (%) of propionic acid significantly increased along with decreased acetic acid with the addition of GO or GOB. Present study concluded that GO and PO have potential to reduce the in vitro methane production. However, GO at the low dose level (0.25g /L) reduced methane production significantly with little impact on IVTD.

Keywords: Essential oils, Goat, Methane, Rumen methanogens.

*Corresponding author: Essential oils, Goat, Methane, Rumen methanogens


Bansod, A.P., Verma, A.K., Chaudhary, L.C., Chaturvedi, V.B. and Saha, S.K. 2023. Effect of feeding graded level of dried cauliflower leaf meal on blood biochemical, hormonal and antioxidant profile of rabbits. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 415-425.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cauliflower leaf meal (CLM) supplemented diet on the blood biochemical, hormonal and antioxidant profile of rabbits. A total of eighteen male rabbits weaned at 45 days of age with average body weight 600±0.97 g were randomly divided into three groups with six rabbits in each group. The first group was fed with control feed (T0), the second (T1) and the third group (T2) were fed with 20 and 30% CLM in concentrate mixture, respectively. The duration of the experiment was 90 days. The addition of CLM to concentrate mixture changed the haematological, biochemical, hormonal, and antioxidant parameters. The haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and albumin values increased significantly (P<0.05) in T2 group and globulin in T1 group as compared to CON. Total cholesterol, serum glucose, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the T2 group. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were comparable among treatment groups, while tetraiodothyronine (T4) was found to be significantly (P<0.05) lower in the T2 group. Serum enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine amino phosphatase (ALP) were similar among the treatment groups. It can be concluded that the inclusion of CLM at 30 % level can efficiently improve the blood biochemical parameters in rabbits without any detrimental effects.

Keywords: Antioxidant status, Cauliflower leaf meal, Male rabbit, Thyroid hormone

*Corresponding author: subodhksaha@yahoo.com


Chandel, S., Wadhwa, D., Sharma, A., Katoch, S. and Upadhyay, S. 2023. Effect of locally available carbohydrate sources along with urea and cow dung on chemical composition and fermentation parameters of ensiled wheat straw. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 427-436.

The objective of present study was to find out some suitable locally available carbohydrate source (CS) which could serve as an alternative of molasses for ensiling wheat straw (WS). Five mixtures were prepared by mixing wheat straw with molasses (MU), maize flour (MFU), wheat flour (WFU), rice flour (RFU) and jaggary (JU). The CS supplied the same amount of NFE as that obtained from 4 kg molasses per 100 kg WS. Urea was mixed @ 4% in all the treatment. Treatment U had no CS and treatment M had only molasses but no urea. Cow dung (CD) was mixed in these mixtures in the ratio of 30:70. The mixtures were ensiled for 40 days in laboratory silos in triplicate. After 40 days, samples were analyzed for DM loss, proximate principles, fibre constituents, fermentation parameters and organoleptic parameters. The treatments MFU, WFU, RFU and JU were compared with treatment MU. The treatment which appeared at rank 1 the maximum number of times, was ranked as 1 and the treatment which appeared at rank 1 the least number of times was placed at last rank. The ensiling caused an increase in the CP, decrease in DM, CF, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose, no effect on EE and increase in total ash (TA) content. The pH ranged from 4.1 to 8.33; TVFA from 9.80 to 11.22 meq/g and ammonia nitrogen from 0.055 to 0.740%. Aerobic stability of MFU and MU treatments was the highest. Total score of JU, MFU, WFU and RFU were 8, 7, 4 and 2 points, respectively. It could be concluded that, either jaggary or maize flour can replace molasses for ensiling WS along with urea and CD for improving its nutritive value.

Keywords: Carbohydrate sources, Ensiling, Fermentation, Urea, Wheat straw

*Corresponding author: daisynutrition@rediffmail.com


Gowda, N.K.S., Gopi, M., Pal, D.T., Dey, D.K. and Bhasker, T.V. 2023. Bioactive role of dietary boron in animals: A review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 437-453.

The advances in nutritional research have identified the role of newer trace elements influencing various biological functions in animals. One such element is Boron (B) which has received much attention over last few decades. B has been identified as one of the lighter elements, readily available at the earth crust. Though, it is quite abundant in the plants as boric acid and borate anion but recent studies has indicated that the supplementation of B to fast growing chicken was helpful in achieving better growth as well as various biochemical functions through altering the levels of minerals. Initially it was postulated that B has a role in bone development through their interaction with major minerals calcium, phosphorus and subsequently with vitamin D. The supplementation of B to Ca deficient diet has been observed to increase the serum inorganic Ca content in livestock and poultry. Boron has been identified to influence the estrogen and testosterone hormones thereby, the overall performance. Apart from this, dietary B as well as it’s topical application has been observed to improve the growth of smooth tissues and favor wound healing, respectively. The dietary supplementation of B has been observed to improve egg shell thickness in layers and exhibit hypolipidemic effect in rats and pigs. B supplementation has shown to upregulate the expression of genes coding for antioxidants, immunity and semen quality in animals. The present review narrates the bioactive role of B in physiological functions of animals and accrued benefits on its supplementation.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Boron, Immunity, Mineral metabolism, Physiological functions

*Corresponding author: nksgowda@gmail.com



Raju, M.V.L.N., Rama Rao, S.V., Prakash, B., Paul, S.S. and Kannan, A. 2023. Effect of dietary inclusion of rice-distillers dried grains with solubles on performance and nutrient retention in laying chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 1-12.

The feeding value of rice-based distillers dried grains with solubles (r-DDGS) was evaluated in the diet of laying chickens. A total of 4752, 24-weeks old laying chickens were divided at random into three groups having 18 replicates consisting of 88 birds in each. The experimental diets were compounded to contain r-DDGS at graded levels (0, 7.5 and 15.0%) on iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous basis and each of the diets was fed to chickens from 24 to 47 weeks of age. Rice-DDGS at 15% in diet significantly (P≤0.05) depressed the egg production, increased the feed intake and decreased the feed efficiency, whereas no such effect was observed at 7.5% r-DDGS level. The egg weight decreased with both levels of r-DDGS, but egg mass (g/bird/period) decreased only at 15.0% level of r-DDGS. Egg shell thickness and egg shell percentage were not affected, while mortality increased with r-DDGS in a dose dependant manner. Nutrient retention (dry matter, energy and nitrogen) was significantly (P≤0.05) low at 15.0% r-DDGS. It is concluded that, r-DDGS at 7.5% in diet showed no adverse effects on egg production, feed conversion efficiency and egg mass in laying chickens.

Keywords: Diet, Laying Chickens, Nutrient Retention, Performance, Rice-DDGS

*Corresponding author: mvlnraju@gmail.com


Bakshi, M.P.S., Kaur, J. and Wadhwa, M. 2023. Utilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pomace with or without waste bread in the ration of growing and adult male buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 13-24.

This study was taken up to assess the impact of tomato pomace (TP) with or without waste bread (WB) in the total mixed ration (TMR) on the nutrient utilization and performance of adult buffaloes and buffalo calves. The TP is a rich source of CP (21-22%), EE (10.5-11.5%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) an antioxidant and other bio-active compounds. In experiment-1, twelve male Murrah buffaloes (Age around 3 years, BW 444.2±4.76 kg) divided into 3 equal groups were offered 2.5 kg of either control concentrate mixture (CCM) or sun dried TP replaced 50 or 100% of CCM on nitrogen basis for 45 days. The daily DM intake and digestibility of nutrients were comparable except that of CP which was depressed (P<0.01) rumen volume and decreased (P<0.05) dilution rate, without affecting rumen out flow rate. The TCA precipitable N concentration in the rumen was improved (P<0.05). In experiment 2, sixteen male Murrah buffalo calves (1.2 to 1.3 years old, weighing 262.7±9.10 kg) divided into four equal groups were fed for 90 days either CCM or wheat in CCM was replaced completely with waste bread (WB) on N-basis or in the third group besides replacing wheat with WB, mustard cake and rice bran were completely replaced with TP and in the fourth group the animals were offered only TP. The daily DM intake, digestibility of nutrients, N-intake and total N retention were comparable in all the groups. The average daily gain in weight of buffalo calves of all experimental groups was improved considerably as compared to control group, but the differences were non-significant. It was concluded that tomato pomace a rich source of protein, ether extract and bio-active compounds can replace concentrate mixture on N basis from 50-100% supplemented with or without detoxified waste bread (a rich source of cooked starch) both in growing and adult buffaloes without any adverse effect on the nutrient utilization, rumen outflow rate and performance of animals.

Keywords: Adult buffaloes, Buffalo calves, Growth, Nutrient utilization, Rumen studies, Tomato pomace, Waste bread

*Corresponding author: bakshimps2@gmail.com


Punitha, G., Prabhu, T.M., Gowda, N.K.S., Pal, D.T., Giridhar, K., Girish, C.H., Dey, D.K., Bharathi, K., Nagaraj, K., Chethan, K.P. and Bhatta, R. 2023. Evaluation of moringa (Moringa oleifera) forage meal in feeding of adult sheep. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 25-38.

Experiment was conducted to study the nutrient utilization in rams fed diet incorporated with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) forage meal (MFM). In a completely randomized design experiment, eighteen healthy rams of comparable age (18-20 months) and body weight (23-26 kg) were selected and divided into 3 groups of six each. Group 1 (CON) received control diet comprising finger millet straw, hybrid napier green fodder and compounded feed mixture (CFM) at 20, 50 and 30 per cent, respectively (DM basis). Groups 2 and 3 received the same diet except that the CFM replaced with MFM at 15 and 30 per cent (w/w), respectively. Ten weeks feeding trial and five days metabolism trial at 6th week of experiment was carried out using all the animals. The chemical analysis (DM basis) of MFM showed that it contained 88.1% OM, 27.6% CP, 5.69% EE, 11.9% total ash, 29.3% NDF and 14.2% ADF. The metabolizable energy (ME) content and gas production were 9.24 MJ/kg DM and 35.1ml/200mg DM/24h, respectively. There was no significant difference in the intake of nutrients among the treatment groups except DM and OM which showed significantly (P=0.04) lower intake in MFM (at 30%) fed sheep. The apparent digestibility (%) for all nutrients was comparable except NDF (57-59%) and ADF (56.4-57.7%), which were significantly (P=0.01) higher in MFM fed groups (2 & 3). The nitrogen retained per unit of nitrogen intake as well as per unit of nitrogen absorbed were increased with increase in inclusion level of MFM. There was no significant change in body weight of rams in all the groups. On perusal of overall findings of this study, it is concluded that the MFM could be included in the diet of rams replacing 15 per cent of the CFM on weight basis.

Keywords: Moringa forage meal, Nutrient composition, Nutrient digestibility, Sheep

*Corresponding author: nksgowda@gmail.com


Kannan, A., Prakash, B., Paul, S.S., Rama Rao, S.V. and Raju, M.V.L.N. 2022. Comparative assessment of organic and inorganic iron supplementation on performance, blood biochemistry, egg quality and egg iron concentration in laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 39-49.

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing different levels of organic and inorganic iron (Fe) on layer performance, egg quality and production of designer eggs enriched with iron. A total of 245 White Leghorn layers at 62 weeks of age, were randomly assigned into seven groups of 35 hens with seven replications (five birds/replicate). A complete randomized design experiment was performed including control (basal diet), three levels of inorganic iron (ferrous sulphate at 100, 200 and 300 mg Fe/kg basal diet) and three levels of organic iron (ferrous proteinate at 100, 200 and 300 mg Fe/ kg basal diet). Supplementation of inorganic and organic iron did not affect feed intake, hen day egg production, egg weight and most of the egg quality traits, however, improved (P<0.05) the eggshell strength. Two weeks after supplementation the Fe content in eggs started increasing and reached peak level at 5 to 6 weeks after which the levels stabilized. Inorganic Fe supplementation improved egg iron content by 20.4 to 35.3% and organic Fe by 32.87 to 42.44%. Supplementation of both organic and inorganic iron significantly (P<0.001) decreased serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Also, supplementation of inorganic iron significantly (P<0.001) decreased serum calcium, phosphorus and total protein levels. It is concluded, that ferrous proteinate is more efficient than ferrous sulphate and 200 mg/kg Fe supplementation as ferrous proteinate is recommended for iron enrichment of eggs in White Leghorn layers without affecting the performance of layers and egg quality.

Keywords: Blood biochemistry, Egg mineral, Egg quality, Iron, Laying hen, Performance

*Corresponding author: akanna72@gmail.com


Guo, Y.W., Chen, J.Y., Xie, K.Z., Zhang, T. Zhang, G.X. and Dai, G.J. 2023. Effects of dietary oiland water-soluble rosemary extracts on the growth performance, meat quality, and muscle antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 51-64.

This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with commercial oil- and water-soluble rosemary extracts on the growth performance, meat quality and muscle antioxidant capacity of broiler chickens. A total of 560 one-day-old commercial broilers were randomly assigned into 7 dietary treatments. Each treatment contained 4 pens, each with 10 males and 10 females. The treatments were as follows: basal diet without rosemary extract (CON); CON + oil-soluble rosemary extract at 100, 150, and 200 mg kg-1 (O-100, O-150, and O-200); and CON + water-soluble rosemary extract at 100, 150, and 200 mg kg-1 (W-100, W-150, and W-200). At d 112, 4 males and 4 females from each pen were randomly selected and slaughtered to investigate the effects of rosemary extract on the performance to be evaluated. Compared with the CON, the feed conversion ratios of other treatments were lower (P<0.05) apart from the basal diet supplemented with water-soluble rosemary extract at 200 mg kg-1. The levels of moisture loss in breast and thigh muscle of the CON and the treatments supplemented with oil-soluble rosemary extract were lower than that of the treatments supplemented with water-soluble rosemary extract. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) values in treatments supplemented with oil-soluble rosemary extract was greater than the other treatments, yet the malondialdehyde (MDA) values showed the opposite trend. Overall, dietary supplementation with oil-soluble rosemary extract can reduce feed conversion ratio, improve meat quality and increase muscle antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Growth performance, Meat quality, Oil-soluble rosemary extract, Water-soluble rosemary extract

*Corresponding author: yzxkz168@163.com


Kumari, N.N., Reddy, Y.R., Nagalakshmi, D. and Vidya, B. 2023. Effect of processing of sweet sorghum bagasse based complete diet on growth and carcass traits in growing ram lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 65-75.

The present study was conducted to identify an appropriate processing method for efficient utilization of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) in the complete diets of growing ram lambs.The SSB based complete diet containing 50:50 roughage to concentrate ratio was processed into mash (SSBM), expander extruded (SSBP) and chop form (SSBC) and compared with sorghum stover based complete diet (50:50) in mash form (SSM).Twenty-four growing Nellore x Deccani cross ram lambs of 3 months old were randomly distributed into four groups of six animals each (average body wt. 10.58±0.23 kg) in a completely randomized block design (CRD) and conducted a growth trial for a period of 180 days. The average daily gain (ADG) of ram lambs fed SSBP was significantly (P<0.01) higher than SSM, SSBC, SSBM diets and it was comparable among the SSBM, SSM and SSBC diets. Processing SSB based complete diets into different forms did not influence the DMI of lambs. The feed conversion efficiency (kg /kg gain) and cost Rs /kg live weight gain was higher in SSBP fed lambs when compared to other rations. The pre slaughter weight was significantly (P<0.05) higher in SSBP ration compared to other three rations. However, the empty body weight and carcass weights were similar (P>0.05) among the rations. Processing of SSB based and sorghum straw-based diets did not significantly influence the dressing percentage, wholesale cuts of lambs, yield of organs, bone and meat yield (%) and their ratios in various wholesale cuts. It is concluded that, the SSB-based complete diet is better utilized by growing ram lambs if it is processed into expander extruder pellets.

Keywords: Carcass traits, Complete diet, Growth, Lambs, Processing, Sweet sorghum bagasse

*Corresponding author: anumoluvidya@gmail.com


Wan, X.L., Zheng, X.C., Dai, H., Liang, J.R., Yang, H.M. and Wang, Z.Y. 2023. Effects of graded levels of dietary vitamin A supplementation on reproductive performance in geese. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 77-86.

A 28 weeks experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of vitamin A (VA) on reproductive performance of Geese. A total of 75 female and 15 male, 180 d old healthy Yangzhou geese were allocated to five treatment groups (15 female geese and 3 male geese each). The geese in the five groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 4000, 8000, 12000, and 16000 IU/kg VA, respectively. The fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of settable eggs, and percentage of healthy day-old goslings were increased linearly and quadratically with increasing dietary VA supplementation (P<0.05). At the end of 8th and 20th week, dietary VA linearly increased serum progesterone concentration, and linearly and quadratically increased serum estradiol (E2) concentration (P<0.05). However, at the end of 28th week, dietary VA addition decreased serum E2 concentration (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, estrogen receptor 1, and estrogen receptor 2, and follicle stimulating hormone receptor were linearly and quadratically increased by increasing dietary VA level (P<0.05), and α-follicle stimulating hormone was increased linearly by dietary VA supplementation. In conclusion, various dietary VA supplementations improved the reproductive performance of breeder geese, and the positive effects were associated with the regulation of genes in hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In this study, the recommended VA supplementation level in breeder geese diet was 12000 IU/kg.

Keywords: Goose, Hormone, HPG axis, Reproductive performance, Vitamin A

*Corresponding author: yhmdlp@qq.com


Jemimah, E.R., Gnanaraj, P.T., Sivakumar, T., Gopinathan, A., Sundaram, S.M. and Venkataramanan R. 2023. Effect of hydroponic maize fodder on the reproductive performance of Tellicherry does. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 87-95.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding hydroponic maize fodder on the reproductive performance of Tellicherry doe kids. The diets as control (100% concentrate mixture), treatment 1 and treatment 2 (where 25 and 50% concentrate CP was replaced by hydroponic maize fodder) were formulated. The doe kids supplemented with hydroponic maize fodder attained puberty earlier with better estrus intensity score; had better fertility/conception rate with higher weight at kidding. Further, the kids born to the does of treatment 2 had higher birth weight, girth, forelimb and hind limb measurements. However, all the experimental kids had similar weight at puberty, prolificacy rate, fecundity rate, kidding rate, per cent multiple births, twinning percentage, triplet percentage and crown-rump length of kids born. To conclude, hydroponic maize fodder can be used to replace concentrate protein up to 50% level for optimal reproductive performance in doe kids.

Keywords: Hydroponic maize fodder, Reproductive performance, Tellicherry doe kids

*Corresponding author: racheljemimah@gmail.com


Sabat, G.P., Panigrahi, B., Sahoo, B., Panda, N., Babu, L.K. and Acharya, A.P. 2023. Effect of protein and mineral supplementation on growth performance and nutrient utilization in Black Bengal Goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 97-105.

A feeding cum growth trial was conducted to assess the effects of proteinaceous diet along with mineral mixture on nutrient utilization and growth performance of Black Bengal goats under stall-feeding system. Eighteen female Black Bengal goats of average 5 months old were randomly divided into three groups. Animals were fed T1 : low protein and low mineral diet as per farmers’ practice; T2 : high protein and low mineral; T3 : high protein and high mineral. Green fodder (hybrid napier) was provided to animals and concentrate and roughage ratio was maintained at about 40:60 level. The total DM intake (g/d) was higher (P<0.05) in T3 (488) than T1 (445) but at par with T2 (471). DM digestibility (%) in T3 (61.50) was higher (P<0.05) than T1 (54.75) and T2 (57.75). Similarly, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and TCHO digestibility was higher in T3 thanT1 but at par with T2 . Daily nutrient intake (CP, DCP, TDN) was higher (P<0.05) in T3 than T1 but at par with T2. Hb level was higher (P<0.05) in T3 than T1 and at par with T2. Serum glucose, total protein and albumin level were higher in T3 than T1 and T2 being at par. The average daily gain (ADG; g/d) was higher (P<0.05) in T3 (63.94) than T1 (39.40) and T2 (52.32). Feed gain ratio was better (P<0.05) in T3 (6.63) than T1 (9.96) and T2 (7.89). It was inferred that feeding goats with high protein diet through increasing the level of groundnut cake with mineral mixture improved the performance of goats.

Keywords: Goat, Growth, Mineral, Nutrient, Protein

*Corresponding author: sahoobiswanath11@gmail.com


Yazdanpanah, F., Taheri, H.R., Hajilou, M. and Kiani, A. 2023. Possibility of crude protein reduction in laying hen diet: effect of dietary lysine, methionine+cystine, and threonine concentration. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 107-117.

This study was designed to investigate the effect of different concentration of lysine, methionine + cystine, and threonine in low-CP-diets on productive performance and egg quality of laying hen from 40 to 52 weeks of age. A total of 270 laying hens (Hy-line W36) were assigned to five dietary treatments with nine replicate cages per treatment and six hens per cage. Dietary treatment includes a control diet (16.5% CP), and two low-CP-diets: 15.34% CP (supplemented with 100 and 107% of lysine, methionine + cystine, and threonine of the control diet) and 14.19% CP-diet (supplemented with 107 and 114% of lysine, methionine + cystine, and threonine of the control). All low-CP-diets supplemented with lysine, methionine + cystine, and threonine to 100-114% of the control diet (requirement) showed similar egg production, egg weight, total abnormal eggs, mortality, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, yolk color, yolk weight, albumen weight, Haugh unit and the specific gravity of egg compared to that of the control; However, the 15.34% CP-diet plus lysine, methionine + cystine, and threonine to 100% of the control prevented egg mass depression compared to that of the control.

Keywords: Crude protein, Laying hen, Lysine, Methionine + Cystine, Threonine

*Corresponding author: taherihr@gmail.com


Bhatt, R.S., Sharma, S.R., Sarkar, S., Soni, A. and Sahoo, A. 2023. Growth performance, carcass traits and muscle fatty acid profile of weaner rabbits fed complete feed blocks with different unconventional roughage sources. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 119-130.

Eighty Chinchilla rabbits were divided into four equal groups and fed complete feed blocks containing 25% each of Vigna unguiculata hay (CFB-1), Vigna mungo crop residue (CFB-2), Stylosanthes hamata hay (CFB-3) and Morus alba leaves (CBF-4) along with 75% common concentrate, up to 3 months of age. Rabbits in all groups had similar growth performance. Lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of meat in CBF-4, CBF-3 and CBF-2 revealed better keeping quality. Proportion of C16:0 and C16:1 fatty acids were lower while C18:2n6c and C20:3n3 were higher in Longissimus thoracis muscle of rabbits fed CFB-2 and CFB-3. The fatty acid desirability in CFB-2 and CFB-3 was due to lower values of SFA, n-6/n-3 ratio, thrombogenic index and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 values. Hence, it is concluded that V. mungo crop residue and S. hamata hay at 25% can be an economic feeding strategy for improving keeping quality and fatty acid profile of meat in rabbits.

Keywords: Carcass traits, Fatty acids, Growth, Rabbit, Roughage, Shelf life

*Corresponding author: bhatt_rs@yahoo.com


Devi, T.D., Ravi, A., Rao, D.S. and Babu, D.S. 2023. Evaluation of dry baker’s yeast vinasse as a substitute for molasses in urea molasses mineral blocks fed to growing ram lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 131-141

The objective of the study was to evaluate dry baker’s yeast vinasse (DBYV), a by-product of baking industry as a substitute of molasses in urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) for keeping quality of blocks, growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in growing ram lambs. DBYV was included at 0 (UMMB1, T1), 5 (UMMB2, T2), 10 (UMMB3, T3) and 15% (UMMB4, T4) in UMMB, replacing molasses. In a completely randomized design, 24 growing ram lambs (3-4 month old) weighing 13.71±0.4 kg were divided into 4 groups of 6 animal each and allotted to four dietary treatments; T1 to T4, respectively. Lambs were fed Andhra Pradesh bajra napier (APBN) green fodder-based diet ad libitum and concentrate mixture at 1% of live weight. The chemical composition (%) of the DBYV was 98.37 DM, 13.47CP, 0.24 EE, 0.01 CF, 56 total ash, 0.21 AIA, 30.18 NFE, 1.15 Ca, 0.55 P and the level of copper, cobalt, zinc and manganese was 1.43, 0.99, 10.42 and 92.09 mg/kg, respectively. There was no foul odour, colour change, mould and salmonella growth in the UMMB during the 4 month storage at room temperature. The hardness (kg/cm2 ) of the blocks decreased (P<0.01) as the inclusion level of DBYV to replace molasses increased and also with increase in the storage period. The pH was lower (P<0.01) n UMMB4 than in other treatments and it increased (P<0.01) as the storage period progressed. The yeast count of DBYV was 10.2×104 cfu/g and for blocks it ranged from 10.5 to 11.5×104 cfu/g on the day of preparation and 8.5 to 10.9×104 cfu/g at the end of 4 months storage period. The average daily gain (g) of lambs was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 than in T4. The feed efficiency, was lower (P<0.05) in T4 fed lambs. The digestibility of DM, CP, EE, and NFF among the treatments was comparable whereas, significantly (P<0.05) higher CF digestibility in T3 fed lambs was observed. The DMI (% body weight), CP and TDN% of the diet and nitrogen balance (% intake) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 than in other treatments. It was concluded that DBYV can be included up to 10% to replace molasses in UMMB in the diet of growing ram lambs.

Keywords: Growth, Keeping quality, Ram lambs, Urea Molasses Mineral Blocks, Vinasse

*Corresponding author: raviakst@gmail.com


Arshad, M.U., Pandey, A., Holeyappa, S.A. and Mandal, A. 2022. Efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplemented diet on growth, proximate composition and haematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio fingerlings. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 143-150.

The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of ginger on growth, proximate composition and haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio. The experiment was conducted in fibreglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) tanks (1.5×1.0×0.75 m), consisted of 5 treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) with 3 replicates each. Basal diet was prepared using rice bran, mustard meal, vitamin and mineral mixture and salt (49, 49, 1.5 and 0.5%, respectively). Ginger powder (GP) was incorporated into basal diets at different levels @ 0 (T1), 0.5% (T2), 1.0% (T3), 1.5% (T4) and 2.0% (T5). At the end of the experiment, weight gain (%), specific growth rate and condition factor (K-value) increased significantly (P≤0.05) in the ginger supplemented groups and recorded best in T5 (158.58%, 0.37 and 1.64, respectively). The feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were also recorded significantly (P≤0.05) better in ginger supplemented diets but there was no significant difference in the survival rate among the treatments. Significant (P≤0.05) increase in the flesh protein content and lipid content was recorded. Hb, TEC, TLC, PCV/Ht, MCH and MCHC increased significantly in all the ginger supplemented diet with maximum in T5, whereas, MCV decreased significantly in T5 (130.70 ìm3). Ginger powder can be included (@2% of feed) in the diet of common carp under semi-intensive culture system to achieve better growth performance and feed utilization.

Keywords:Body composition, Common carp, Ginger, Growth, Haematology

*Corresponding author: pandeyabhed@yahoo.com


Hernández, D., Blanco, G., Peredo, G. and Díaz, J. 2023. Effect of incorporating olive cake and apple pomace in the finishing diets of pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 151-163.

Apple pomace and olive cake are agro-industrial by products that can constitute as an alternate feedstuff in animal feeding. Effect of the addition of these by products to finishing diets of pigs, on consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency, carcass characteristics and lipid profile were studied. Sixtyfour PIC 337 pigs weighing 48.25 kg were used. Four diets incorporated with olive cake and apple pomace were evaluated using a control group and 3 treatment groups, with 3 replicates for each group. Four corrals with four sows per treatment were used. The trial lasted 64 days, and the animals were sacrificed with a live weight of 107.44±9.76 kg. Daily feed intake increased in treatments with by products, with treatment 2 being the highest, which also had lower feed efficiency. Treatments had little effect on characteristics of meat, fatty acids and carcass. Carcass yield on treatment groups was lower relative to the conventional feed (control group), with treatment 3 being the highest among them. The conventional diet had higher fiber content, while treatment 1 showed the highest protein content and treatment 2 the highest ash content. The treatments decreased the eicosenoic monounsaturated fatty acid in relation to the conventional diet, presented lower values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and increased the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The addition of olive cake and apple pomace constitutes an alternate feedstuff in producing finishing diets of sows, presenting acceptable growth factor and carcass quality values, providing a healthier lipid profile in fatty tissues.

Keywords: Agro-industrial by product, Carcass trait, Fatty acids, Growth performance, Meat quality

*Corresponding author: dhernandez@utalca.cl


Kumar, R., Goswami, M., Pathak, V., Bharti, S.K., Verma, A.K., Rajkumar, V. and Patel, P. 2023. Utilization of poultry slaughter byproducts to develop cost effective dried pet food. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 165-174.

The present investigation was carried out to utilize poultry byproducts for development of costeffective pet food. Pet foods were prepared by incorporation of 30, 40 and 50% poultry by-products powder by replacing chicken meat powder and evaluated for various quality characteristics. The proximate composition and nutrient values of pet food were maintained in accordance to AAFCO (2008) and NRC (2006). pH values and ash content increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas baking yield, moisture, protein, fat content and water activity values decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increased level of poultry byproducts powder. Among textural and colour parameters, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and redness values increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas lightness and yellowness values decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treatments. Colour and consistency scores decreased significantly (P<0.05) at higher level of chicken byproducts powder incorporation in pet food, but no significant difference was observed in general appearance, odour, crispiness, meat flavour intensity and overall acceptability scores upto 50% of poultry byproducts powder incorporation. Pet food with 50% by-products powder contained 61.84% MUFA, 10.66% SFA, 1.81% PUFA and 1.81% omega 3 fatty acids, respectively. The production cost of developed pet food was estimated as Rs.205/kg, which was comparatively much lower than control (Rs. 366.31/kg) and commercially available pet food. Therefore, it was concluded that pet food was developed by incorporating 50% poultry byproducts powder as per standards given by AAFCO (2008) and NRC (2006) and cost of this 50% chicken byproducts powder incorporated dried pet food was Rs. 160.68/ - less than chicken meat powder incorporated dried pet food.

Keywords: Dried pet food, Fatty acids profile, Palatability test, Poultry byproducts powder

*Corresponding author: dr.goswami2008@yahoo.co.in


Vidya, B., Venkateshwarlu, M., Nagalakshmi, D., Chandra, A.S., Preetham, V.C. and Kumari, N.N. 2023. Nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and plane of nutrition in native sheep fed feed blocks containing sorghum stover of different particle size. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 175-183.

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of particle size (PS) of sorghum stover (SS) on nutrient utilization in native sheep. Twenty one, adult Deccani rams (19.45±0.80 kg) of 2-3 yrs age were randomly divided into 3 groups of 7 animals each and fed complete feed blocks containing 8 mm (SSCFB8), 12 mm (SSCFB-12) and 16 mm (SSCFB-16) particle sizes of the stover. Decreasing of PS of stover significantly increased the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) but did not show any effect on digestibility of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract, nitrogen free extract (NFE) and cellulose and nitrogen balance. The SSCFB-16 diet had significantly (P<0.05) lower total digestible nutrients (TDN) and metabolizable energy (ME) content compared to SSCFB-8 but comparable with SSCFB-12 diet. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in digestible crude protein (%) content among three diets. PS of SS had no effect (P>0.05) on intake (g/d) of DM, CP, TDN and ME (Mcal/d). Based on the results of the present study the SS ground to 8 mm could be considered as optimum for better nutrient utilization in sheep.

Keywords: Nutrient digestibility, Particle size, Sheep, Sorghum stover

*Corresponding author: anumoluvidya@gmail.com


Pirestani, A., Alian, M. and Motalebipour, E.Z. 2023. Evaluation of milk production and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows using multi-component binder in feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 185-193.

The mycotoxins in animal feed have caused various problems for farmers. The present study determined the effect of multi-component binder (MCB) on milk production and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. This study was 84 days long and 60 lactating cows kept at dairy farm were chosen for the experiment. Cows were classified into two groups: control group (N= 30) were without MCB and the treatment group (N= 30) received the MCB in their diet. For first 10 days no binders were added to diet. For the next 74 days binders were added to total mixed ration (TMR), and then milk samples were taken on the 17th, 34th, 57th, 77th, and 84th day. Furthermore, the reproductive indices (service/conception, uterine infection, calving interval, open days, uterine involution, and ovarian cysts) were diagnosed the farm veterinarian. The results indicated that the production of milk and sum of protein in it has increased while milk fat, lactose, somatic cell count (SCC), and AFM1 has decreased with increasing consume days of MCB in the diet. Furthermore, using the MCB showed no negative effect on reproduction indices. Ovarian cysts were reduced to zero with MCB diet. In current study, the quality of milk as well as reproduction indices were improved by using MCB in the diet which may reduce future risks such as retained placental, dystocia and uterine infections in animals.

Keywords: Dairy cow, Milk production, Multi-component binder, Reproductive performance

*Corresponding author: a.pirestani@khuisf.ac.ir


Aghakhani, M., Shahraki, A.D.F., Tabatabaei, S.N., Toghyani, M. and Rafiee, H. 2023. Effect of maternal factors on immunity of pre-weaning calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 23: 195-203.

The objective was to evaluate the effect of factors related to cow and calves on immunity of calves during pre-weaning period. The calves were grouped based on serum total protein (STP) concentration as: 4.30 to 6.00, 6.10 to 6.60, 6.70 to 7.20 and greater than 7.30. Effects of lactation, dry-off period and length of pregnancy of cows related to experimental calves were surveyed. STP concentrations 24 h after colostrum feeding had significant (P<0.0001) differences. Colostrum intake (P=0.09), colostrum quality (P<0.05), calf immunity (P<0.05), calve weight at birth time (P<0.01), as well as length of pregnancy (P<0.05) had significant effect on serum STP concentration. STP concentration at d 10, was greater (P<0.0001) for calves in groups 3 and 4 (6.26 and 6.35 g/dL) than those in the groups 1 and 2 (5.70 and 5.87 g/dL). However, at d 35, calves in the group 4 (6.16 g/dL) had the greatest (P<0.0001) STP concentration. Concentration at d 10 was significantly affected by lactation number (P<0.01), length of pregnancy (P<0.05), as well as length of dry period (P<0.05), whereas at d 35 of calves life only lactation number (P<0.05) was significant.

Keywords: Colostrum quality, Cow-level factors, Passive transfer, Holstein dairy calves, Immunity

*Corresponding author: ad_foroozandeh@yahoo.com