Current Issues

  • 1. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00020.8 Effect of a Blend of Essential Oils on Buffalo Rumen Microbial and Enzyme Profiles and In Vitro Feed Fermentation
    Anju Kala, D.N. Kamra*, Neeta Agarwal and L.C. Chaudhary
    2. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00021.X Boron Supplementation Influences Bone Mineralization by Modulating Expression of Genes Regulating Calcium Utilization
    T. Vijay Bhasker, N.K.S Gowda*, S. Mondal , D.T. Pal, H.P. Aithal , A.K. Pattanaik, S.V. Rama Rao and S. Karthik Bhat
    3. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00022.1 Comparative Assessment of Lipid and Fatty Acids of Nine Crop Species During Plant Growth
    P.G. Peiretti* and F. Gai
    4. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00023.3 Nutritional Characteristics of Available Feed Resources in Maradi Area of Niger
    N. Abdou,*, A.S. Gouro and I.V. Nsahlai
    5. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00024.5 Effect of Maleic Acid on Nutritive Value, Carotenoids Content and In vitro Digestibility of Maize Silage
    K. Kara*
    6. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00025.7 Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Seed Saponin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Microbial Protein Synthesis and HematoBiochemical Attributes of Gaddi Goats
    R.V. Jadhav, A. Kannan*, R. Bhar, O.P. Sharma, T.K. Bhat, Ashu Gulati , K. Rajkumar, R. Sharma, G. Mal, B. Singh and V.K. Sharma
    7. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00026.9 Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels on Hay Yield and Some Quality Traits of Sudan Grass and Sorghum x Sudan Grass Hybrids
    H. Mut*, E. Gulumser, M.C. Dogrusoz and U. Basaran
    8. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00027.0 Effect of Feeding Frequency on Plasma Metabolites Concentrations and Production Cost in Feed-restricted Lambs
    A. Swelum*, F. Alshamiry, A. El-Waziry, M. Ali , T. Shafey and M. Abouheif
    9. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00028.2 Effect of Vitamin E on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Digestion in Steers Supplemented with Microencapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid
    O. Hernández-Mendo, M. Ramírez-Mella*, J.E. Ramírez-Bribiesca, M.M. Crosby-Galvánand J.A. Burgueño-Ferreira
    10. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00029.4 Effects of Bacitracin and Bacitracin Zinc on In Vitro Fermentation, Methane Production and Microbial Populations of the Rumen
    Y.Y. Chen, J.S. Shen*, Z. Liu, P.A. Lv, and W.Y. Zhu
    11. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00030.0 Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Fermented Fish Silage on the Performance of Broiler Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
    Sasmita Panda, L.K. Babu, A.K. Panda*, Tanuja S., A. Mohanty, K.K. Panigrahy, P. Samal and C.R. Pradhan
    12. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00031.2 Evaluation of Processed Rain Tree (Samanea saman) Pod Meal as a Non-conventional Ingredient in the Diet of Catla catla Fry
    S.C. Rath*, K.C. Nayak, C. Pradhan, T.K. Mohanty, S. Sarkar, K.N. Mohanta, B.N. Paul, and S.S. Giri
    13. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00032.4 Effect of Feeding Tanniniferous Acacia nilotica Pod Meal on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Black Bengal Kids
    J.K. Paswan, Kaushalendra Kumar*, Sanjay Kumar, Chandramoni, P.K. Singh, Abhishek Kumar, Shahla Perween and Amitava Dey
    14. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00033.6 Performance of Goat Kids Fed Detoxified Castor Bean Meal Based Concentrate Feed Mixtures
    H. Nagesh, G.G. Bhavishya Kumar, T.M. Prabhu*, R.G. Gloridoss, K.C. Singh and B.N. Suresh
    15. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00034.8 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Butyric Acid on Growth Performance and Intestinal Microbial Load in Broiler Chickens
    Meesam Raza, Avishek Biswas*, A.B. Mandal and A.S. Yadav
    16. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00035.X Effect of Feeding Supplemental Concentrate on Nutrient Utilization in Dromedary Camels under Sustained Working Conditions
    Lokesh Gupta* and G.S. Tiwari
    17. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00036.1 Aspects of Safety in Production of Feeds – A Review
    D.B. Matuszek and J.B. Królczyk,*
       
      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00020.8 Effect of a Blend of Essential Oils on Buffalo Rumen Microbial and Enzyme Profiles and In Vitro Feed Fermentation
      Anju Kala, D.N. Kamra*, Neeta Agarwal and L.C. Chaudhary
      Center of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kala, A., Kamra, D.N., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2017. Effect of a blend of essential oils on buffalo rumen microbial and enzyme profiles and in vitro feed fermentation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 189-200.

    Three rumen-fistulated adult Murrah buffaloes (BW 426±45 kg) were arranged in a 3×3 LSD. The treatments involved supplementation of a blend (BEO-CL) of clove bud oleoresin and lemongrass oil (in 1:1 ratio) at the rate of 0, 0.75 and 1.5 % of BW. After 20d of feeding, the rumen liquor and rumen contents were sampled before (0h) and 4h after feeding and analyzed for various parameters. There was neither any effect of feed additive nor sampling time on the concentration of VFAs, NH3 -N, lactic acid and activities of select enzymes (carboxymethylcellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, β-glucosidase, α-glucosidase and acetyl esterase). The population of rumen bacteria, fungi, ciliate protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus and methanogens were not affected by BEO-CL supplementation. In vitro gas production test to evaluate various feedstuffs namely hays (berseem, oat and maize); dry roughages (wheat straw, paddy straw and sugarcane bagasse) complete feeds with 20:80, 35:65 and 50:50 concentrate: roughage ratio) as substrates was conducted using rumen liquor of these buffaloes as inocula. There was an increase in gas production with rumen liquor of BEO-CL supplemented buffaloes irrespective of substrate. Methane production was decreased with 0.75 % BEOCL supplemented inoculum but not with paddy straw and sugarcane bagasse. The in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of feed was increased with BEO-CL inoculum only with complete diet having 20:80 concentrate:roughage ratio as substrate. It is concluded that BEO-CL at the level of 0.75% of BW did not affect rumen characteristics and major microbial populations but inhibited in vitro methane production; hence, it can be further explored for its use as a feed additive to mitigate methane emission in buffaloes.

    Key words: Buffaloes, Enzymes, Essential oils, Feed additive, Methane, Rumen microbes.

    *Corresponding author: dnkamra@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00021.X Boron Supplementation Influences Bone Mineralization by Modulating Expression of Genes Regulating Calcium Utilization
      T. Vijay Bhasker, N.K.S Gowda*, S. Mondal, D.T. Pal1, H.P. Aithal, A.K. Pattanaik, S.V. Rama Rao and S. Karthik Bhat
      Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Vijay Bhasker, T., Gowda, N.K.S, Mondal, S., Pal, D.T., Aithal, H.P., Pattanaik, A.K., Rama Rao, S.V. and Bhat, S.K. 2017. Boron supplementation influences bone mineralization by modulating expression of genes regulating calcium utilization. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 201-215.

    The influence of dietary boron (B) supplementation on bone mineralization in rats with or without dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90d. Wister strain male rats (n=84; ~3- 4 wks of age) were divided into seven dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) namely, Normal-Ca (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control; 1.69 ppm B) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB- 20) and 40 ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-Ca (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40 ppm B (LCB-40). After 90d of experimental feeding, a 5d digestibility trial was conducted to estimate gut absorption of minerals. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals, femur bone for assessment of minerals, bone breaking strength and radiography, and liver for appraisal of relative mRNA abundance of calmodulin (CAL), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and thyroid receptor binding protein (TRBP). Boron supplementation to Ca adequate diets improved (P<0.05) the gut absorption efficiency of ca (at 5 and 10 ppm b) and ca content in serum (at 20 at 40 ppm b). the ca content in femur bone, its (bone) breaking strength and cortical index were observed to be lowest (p<0.05) in the LC group, and were improved (P<0.05) with B-supplementation (40 ppm). Supplementation of B improved (P<0.01) the relative mRNA expression levels for VDBP (at 10 ppm B) and CAL (at 10, 20 and 40 ppm B) in liver tissue as compared to control. The present study indicates a positive and supportive role of B in Ca utilization with both normal and restricted level of dietary Ca and bone mineralization which was mediated through modulation of Ca regulating genes.

    Key words: Bone, Boron, Calcium, Gene Expression, Mineralization.

    *Corresponding author: nksgowda@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00022.1 Comparative Assessment of Lipid and Fatty Acids of Nine Crop Species During Plant Growth
      P.G. Peiretti* and F. Gai
      Institute of Science of Food Production, National Research Council Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095, Grugliasco (TO), Italy
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Peiretti, P.G. and Gal, F. 2017. Comparative assessment of lipid and fatty acids of nine crop species during plant growth. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 217-228.

    The aim of the present work was to compare the lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents of nine different crops belonging to seven botanical families during their different growth stages. The compared plant species were: Carthamus tinctorius L. and Helianthus annuus L. (Fam. Asteraceae), Camelina sativa L. and Brassica campestris L. var. Oleifera (Fam. Brassicaceae), Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Fam. Chenopodiaceae), Guizotia abyssinica Cass. (Fam. Compositae), Perilla frutescens L. (Fam. Lamiaceae), Salvia hispanica L. (Fam. Labiatae), and Linum usitatissimum L. (Fam. Linaceae). Overall, 134 samples of these green crops, which were collected in nine studies, at progressive morphological stages, from 2004 to 2013, have been used in this comparison. The lipid content ranged from 10 to 47 g/kg of DM. The FA values disclosed quantitative differences between the crops and the plant stages. All the samples were characterized by a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as linoleic (LA) and α- linolenic acid (ALA). These two FAs, together with palmitic (PA), stearic (SA) and oleic acid (OA), were present in all of the examined crops during all of their growth stages. Further, ALA and LA were the most abundant FAs, and ranged from 309 to 649 and from 98 to 218 g/kg of total FA, respectively. Moreover, PA, SA and OA ranged from 85 to 133, from 8 to 116 and from 1 to 167 g/kg of total FA, respectively. These results allow us to identify the crop and growth stage that are the richest in terms of lipid and PUFA contents and therefore potentially more favorable for nutritional purposes.

    Key words: Fatty acid, Lipid, Growth cycle, Stage, Crop, Nutritive value.

    *Corresponding author: piergiorgio.peiretti@ispa.cnr.it

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00023.3 Nutritional Characteristics of Available Feed Resources in Maradi Area of Niger
      N. Abdou*, A.S. Gouro and I.V. Nsahlai
      Department of Animal and Poultry Science School of Agricultural Earth and Environmental Science University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg Campus, Scottsville-3209, South Africa
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Abdou, N., Gouro, A.S. and Nsahlai, I.V. 2017. Nutritional characteristics of available feed resources in Maradi area of Niger. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 229-243.

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of feeds and to determine the effect of urea treatment on roughages. Straws, legumes and concentrates were collected in the dry season. Straws were millet stover, sorghum stover, Diheteropogon hagerupii, Eragrostis tremula and Schizachyrium exile; forage legumes were groundnut haulms and cowpea husk; concentrates were wheat bran, millet bran and cottonseed cake. Samples of straws and cowpea husk were either untreated or treated with urea. Feeds were analyzed for DM, OM, N, NDF, ADF, ADL and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN). Degradability characteristics were determined using two Jersey cows. Cereal straws showed significant (P<0.001) variation in the fibre fractions and n content. urea treatment of straws increased (p<0.001) N and ADIN content. Forage legumes had different (P<0.01) NDF and N. Urea treatment of cowpea husk increased (P<0.001) N. Concentrates differed (P<0.001) in N, and fibre. Straws had different (P<0.001) soluble fraction (wash), effective degradability (ED); urea treated straws had higher (P<0.001) ED. Forage legumes affected (P<0.01) solubility and ED, while treating cowpea husk decreased (P<0.05) ED. Concentrate affected (P<0.001) N degradability and ED. Effective degradability of DM and OM varied (P<0.001) within concentrates. These findings suggest that consideration of nutritional quality should be taken when formulating diets for ruminants in the study areas.

    Key words: Cereal straw, Chemical composition, Concentrates, Forage legumes, Rumen degradation, Urea treatment.

    *Corresponding author: nourouabdu@yahoo.fr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00024.5 Effect of Maleic Acid on Nutritive Value, Carotenoids Content and In vitro Digestibility of Maize Silage
      K. Kara*
      Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University Kayseri 38280, Turkey
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kara, K. 2017. Effect of maleic acid on nutritive value, carotenoids content and in vitro digestibility of maize silage. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 245-254.

    This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementation of maleic acid (MA) on the silage characteristics, nutritive value, carotenoids contents, and in vitro digestion attributes of maize silage. Maize herbage was ensiled either without (control group: MA0) or with three different doses of 1.0 (MA1), 2.0 (MA2), and 3.0 (MA3) percent (w/w) of the fresh material for 60 days. Supplementation of MA did not change the dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), acid detergent fibre (ADFom), acid detergent lignin (ADL) or TDN contents of the silage. In addition, neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) content decreased (P<0.001) linearly by the increasing dose of maleic acid dose. however, relative feed value, relative forage quality and non-structural carbohydrate of maize silage increased linearly (p<0.001) by MA. Neither the in vitro total gas and methane production nor the nutritive value of the silage in terms of metabolisable energy (ME), net energy lactation (NEL) and organic matter disappearance (OMd) changed due to maleic acid supplementation. However, the supplementation of MA to maize herbage at ensilaging stage decreased (P<0.01) its α-carotene, β-carotene, γ-carotene, lycopene and zeaxanthin contents in a linear manner with a concomitant increase (P<0.01) in its lutein and total carotenoids contents. It is concluded that maleic acid addition to maize forage at ensiling stage increased the total carotenoids content of the silage without influencing any of the nutrient characteristics.

    Key words: Carotenoids, Cis-butenedioic, Forage quality, In vitro gas production.

    *Corresponding author: karakanber@hotmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00025.7 Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Seed Saponin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Microbial Protein Synthesis and HematoBiochemical Attributes of Gaddi Goats
      R.V. Jadhav, A. Kannan*, R. Bhar, O.P. Sharma, T.K. Bhat, Ashu Gulati, K. Rajkumar, R. Sharma, G. Mal, B. Singh and V.K. Sharma
      ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Regional Station, Palampur-176 061, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Jadhav, R.V., Kannan, A., Bhar, R., Sharma, O.P., Bhat, T.K., Gulati, A., Rajkumar, K., Sharma, R., Mal, G., Singh, B. and Sharma,V.K. 2017. Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed saponin supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, microbial protein synthesis and hemato-biochemical attributes of Gaddi goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 255-268.

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding tea seed saponin in oat fodder based diet on intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization, microbial protein synthesis and hemato-biochemical attributes of Gaddi goats in a 90 days feeding experiment. Eighteen male goats (6 to 7 months old and 17.70±0.75 kg body weight) were divided into three groups of six in each, as T0 (control), T1 and T2 in a completely randomized design. The animals in T0 were fed a basal diet containing concentrate mixture and oat fodder, while the animals in T1 and T2 groups were fed with same ration supplemented with tea seed saponin (TSS) on alternate days at the dose level of 0.4% and 0.8% of DMI, respectively. All animals were fed for a growth rate of 60 g/d. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight changes of each animal were recorded. A metabolism trial of six days duration was conducted. Dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and cellulose digestibilities were though comparable in between T0 and T1 , were significantly lower in T2 (P<0.05). though digestible crude protein (g />kg diet) was comparable, TDN (g/kg diet) was significantly (P<0.05) lower in t2. a trend of lower urinary n excretion, higher n balance and microbial n supply were observed in tss supplemented groups (t1 and t2 ) as compared to t0. average daily gain was highest in t1 (75.56g) followed by t0 (61.78g) and was lowest in t2 (58.78g). the tss supplementation did not change the levels of hb, pcv, total protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin and creatinine. however, saponin supplementation significantly (p<0.05) decreased triglyceride and increased HDL cholesterol levels. Thus, it may be concluded that TSS may be supplemented on alternate days at the level of 0.4% of DMI to improve growth rate, microbial protein synthesis and to favourably modify lipid profile in Gaddi goats.

    Key words: Tea seed saponins, Growth, Microbial protein supply, Ruminant.

    *Corresponding author: akanna72@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00026.9 Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels on Hay Yield and Some Quality Traits of Sudan Grass and Sorghum x Sudan Grass Hybrids
      H. Mut*, E. Gulumser, M.C. Dogrusoz and U. Basaran
      Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Mut, H., Gulumser, E., Dogrusoz, M. C. and Basaran, U. 2017. Effect of different nitrogen levels on hay yield and some quality traits of sudan grass and sorghum x sudan grass hybrids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17:269-278.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate DM yield and forage quality responses of sudan grass and sorghum x sudan grass hybrids to nitrogen application under irrigated Central Anatolia conditions during summer season of 2013 and 2014. The study included one sudan grass (Gozde-80) and two sorgum x sudan grass hybrid (Aneto and Bovital) cultivars. The fertilizer was applied based on nitrogen fertilizer with six different (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg N/ha) doses. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, hay yield, CP yield, ADF, NDF, Ca, K, P and Mg contents were determined. Hay yield ranged between 7.67 (Gozde-80) and 8.31 t/ha (Bovital) among cultivars, and between 7.47 (0 kg/ha; control) and 8.72 t/ha (80 kg/ha) among N doses. The highest CP content was recorded from Bovital (14.49%) and Aneto (14.02%) cultivars. Aneto cultivar has highest CP yield (1.53 t/ha) with 40 kg/ha N dose. The lowest ADF content of hay was determined in Bovital cultivars (36.55%) whereas the NDF content ranged from 67.10% (Gozde-80) to 67.62% (Bovital) among the genotypes. Macro-mineral (P, K, Ca and Mg) contents of the forage in all the three genotypes were higher than the animal needs recommended. The highest benefit was determined in Aneto (5018 €/ha) with application 40 kg N/ha. Overall, the results indicated that at the end of the two years study, in terms of hay yield, CP yield and benefits, Aneto cultivar and N application dose rate of 40 kg N/ha were found best choice under irrigated conditions.

    Key words: ADF, Hay yield, Hybrids, Protein, Sudan grass.

    *Corresponding author: hanife.mut@bozok.edu.tr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00027.0 Effect of Feeding Frequency on Plasma Metabolites Concentrations and Production Cost in Feed-restricted Lambs
      A. Swelum*, F. Alshamiry, A. El-Waziry, M. Ali , T. Shafey and M. Abouheif
      Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Swelum, A., Alshamiry, F., El-Waziry, A., Ali, M., Shafey, T. and Abouheif, M. 2017. Effect of feeding frequency on plasma metabolites concentrations and production cost in feed-restricted lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 279-291.

    Twenty-four Najdi ram (BW 38.6±0.6 kg) were selected to evaluate the effect of feed restriction and frequency of feeding on plasma metabolites concentrations and production cost. Lambs were allotted randomly into three feeding groups. The first group was used as control and fed ad libitum (AL). The second and third group lambs were fed a restricted diet (R; at 0.85 of ad libitum) fed either once (R1m) or twice daily (R2m). Blood samples were collected on d 40, 47 and 55 for the determination of plasma metabolites and insulin concentrations. All lambs were slaughtered after 8 weeks. Results showed that AL feeding of lambs led to higher (P<0.05) bw, adg, liver weight, internal tail fat weight and subcutaneous fat percentage than restricted fed groups. however, these parameters did not differ between both the restricted-fed (r1m and r2m) treatments. cold carcass weight and percentages of lean and protein were not affected (p>0.05) by feed restriction.Lambs fed twice daily (R2m) produced the least efficient lambs in feed: gain ratio in comparison with the other treatments. Plasma concentrations of urea, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and calcium did not differ (P>0.05) between lambs subjected to once or twice feeding of 85% restricted diet, but were significantly lower than AL fed group. The AL-fed lambs had higher total costs while R1m showed the lowest total costs and highest net profit. It is suggested that once daily feeding at 0.85 of ad libitum level can be adopted as a nutritional practice for fattening lambs.

    Key words: Economic measures, Feeding frequency, Plasma metabolites, Performance.

    *Corresponding author: aymanswelum@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00028.2 Effect of Vitamin E on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Digestion in Steers Supplemented with Microencapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid
      O. Hernández-Mendo, M. Ramírez-Mella*, J.E. Ramírez-Bribiesca, M.M. Crosby-Galvánand J.A. Burgueño-Ferreira
      Programa de Ganadería, Colegio de Postgraduados (CP) Campus Montecillo,M Texcoco, Estado de México, 56230, México
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Hernández-Mendo, O., Ramírez-Mella, M., Ramírez-Bribiesca, J.E., Crosby-Galván, M.M. and BurgueñoFerreira, J.A. 2017. Effect of vitamin E on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in steers supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 293-301.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in steers supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Four male rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein steers (450±93 kg) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design, randomly assigned to four treatments: control (basal diet with 50g of microencapsulated CLA) and the same supplemented with three levels of vitamin E at 4000, 8000, or 12000 IU/d. The supplements (CLA and vitamin E) were placed intra-ruminally. The basal diet consisted of 68% of concentrate and 32% of forage. DM intake was restricted to 2.1% of the initial LW. Chromium oxide was administrated as inert digesta marker via ruminal cannula. There were no significant differences in ruminal pH and production of VFAs due to vitamin E; but butyrate and total VFAs concentration tended to decrease. Also, vitamin E treatments tended to increase acetate:propionate ratio. Ruminal digestion of CP tended to decrease and flow to duodenum of CP tended to increase. Faecal excretion of DM and OM decreased significantly (P<0.05), while total-tract digestion of dm and om increased significantly (p<0.05) with vitamin E. In conclusion, vitamin E improves total-tract digestibility of DM and OM in steers supplemented with microencapsulated CLA. This suggests that vitamin E could improve the gastrointestinal conditions, impacting positively the productive performance of animals.

    Key words: Conjugated linoleic acid, Post-ruminal digestion, Ruminal metabolism, Tocopherol, Vitamin E, Volatile fatty acids

    *Corresponding author: monicara@colpos.mx

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00029.4 Effects of Bacitracin and Bacitracin Zinc on In Vitro Fermentation, Methane Production and Microbial Populations of the Rumen
      Y.Y. Chen, J.S. Shen*, Z. Liu, P.A. Lv, and W.Y. Zhu
      Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health College of Animal Science and Technology Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Chen, Y.Y., Shen, J.S., Liu, Z., Lv, P.A. and Zhu, W.Y. 2017. Effects of bacitracin and bacitracin zinc on in vitro fermentation, methane production and microbial populations of the rumen. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 303-314.

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of bacitracin (B) and bacitracin zinc (BZ) on in vitro fermentation, methane and ammonia production, and select microbial populations of the rumen. Both B and BZ were added at 3 doses, namely 10 (low), 30 (medium), and 90 (high) mg/l of in vitro fermentation medium. Results showed that B and BZ had similar effects on rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial populations. Low dosage of B or BZ addition reduced (P<0.05) methane and ammonia production, while had no adverse effects (p> 0.05) on total VFA concentration and feed digestibility. The population of total bacteria was unaffected (P>0.05) by low B and BZ doses, but was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by high b and bz doses. all b and bz doses lowered (p<0.05) the populations of Firmicute, Bacteroidetes, methanogens, Clostridium aminophilum and Clostridium sticklandii. However, B and BZ addition had no influence (P>0.05) on the populations of protozoa and fungi. Results indicated that optimum B or BZ addition could reduce methane and ammonia production, with no adverse effects on total VFA concentration and feed digestibility. Further, these effects are probably associated with the variation of rumen functional microbial populations.

    Key words: Ammonia, Bacitracin zinc, Methane, Microbial population, Rumen fermentation.

    *Corresponding author: shenjunshi@njau.edu.cn

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00030.0 Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Fermented Fish Silage on the Performance of Broiler Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
      Sasmita Panda, L.K. Babu, A.K. Panda *, Tanuja S., A. Mohanty, K.K. Panigrahy2 , P. Samal and C.R. Pradhan
      Department of Livestock Production and Management College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Panda, S., Babu, L.K., Panda, A.K. Tanuja, S., Mohanty, A., Panigrahy, K.K., Samal, P. and Pradhan, C.R. 2017. Effect of dietary incorporation of fermented fish silage on the performance of broiler Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 315-322.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented fish silage (FFS) on performance, carcass traits and economics of production of Japanese quails. Seven-day old broiler Japanese quail chicks (n=192) of either sex were randomly distributed into four dietary groups with four replicates in each group of 12 chicks in each pen and raised in deep litter system for five weeks under uniform management conditions. The dietary treatments were: control diet alone without FFS (CON) or with 5 (FFS- 5), 10 (FFS-10) and 15 (FFS-15) percent FFS. All the birds were fed isocaloric and iso-nitrogenous diets during the experimental period. Group BW and feed consumption were recorded at weekly intervals and FCR was calculated. At the end of the experiment, eight birds from each treatment were selected randomly to study the carcass traits. The BW gain and FCR of broiler Japanese quails fed FFS-5 diet was found to be similar to that of control group. Higher levels of FFS inclusion, beyond 5%, significantly (P<0.05) reduced the bw gain of birds; however, the fcr remained unaffected. carcass traits were not influenced due to dietary incorporation of ffs. the cost of production of broiler japanese quail chicks was found to be similar between ffs-5 and ffs-10 diets, being lower than that of either control or ffs-15 diet. dietary inclusion of 5% ffs reduced the cost of production by h 12.87 per kg lw gain. it is concluded that ffs can be incorporated at 5% level in the diet of broiler japanese quails for optimum performance and economic quail production.

    Key words: Broiler, Japanese quails, Fermented fish silage, Performance.

    *Corresponding author: akpanda59@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00031.2 Evaluation of Processed Rain Tree (Samanea saman) Pod Meal as a Non-conventional Ingredient in the Diet of Catla catla Fry
      S.C. Rath*, K.C. Nayak, C. Pradhan, T.K. Mohanty, S. Sarkar, K.N. Mohanta, B.N. Paul, and S.S. Giri
      ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Bhubaneswar-751002, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Rath, S.C., Nayank, K.C., Pradhan, C., Mohanty, T.K., Sarkar, S., Mohanta, K.N., Paul, B.N. and Giri, S.S. 2017. Evaluation of processed rain tree (Samanea saman) pod meal as a non-conventional ingredient in the diet of Catla catla fry. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 323-332.

    Rain tree (Samanea saman) is a fast-growing tropical tree, abundantly grown in India under plantation programmes. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of processed rain tree pod (RTP) in the diets of Catla catla fry. Chemical analysis results indicated that RTP is a good source of protein (25.2% CP) and energy (4.88 kcal/g), and contains 1-2% of ether extract with 44% PUFA. Additionally, it contained 7.4% tannins, 2.25% saponin, and 1.57% alkaloids. Water soaking followed by autoclaving of raw RTP reduced tannin and saponin contents. Five iso-nitrogenous test feeds were formulated incorporating raw (F1) and differently processed RTP (F2-F5) at 30% level with groundnut oilcake and rice bran as co-ingredients and fed to Catala catla fry reared in indoor FRP tanks for 60d. Results indicated that fish of raw or processed RTP fed groups did not show any significant (P>0.05) differences in survival (98-99%), average weight gain (0.30-0.31 g), FCR (1.11-1.14) and specific growth rate (SGR; 1.76-1.82 %/day). Nonetheless, the protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization (NPU) values varied significantly (P<0.05) between the raw and processed rtp groups. it is inferred that the tannin, saponin and alkaloid contents in raw rtp are possibly in the safe level when incorporated at 30% level in the diet of catla fry. hence, there appears to be further scope to incorporate the processed rain tree pod meal beyond 30% level in the carp feed.

    Key words: Anti-nutrient factors, Catla catla, processing rain tree pod, Samanea saman.

    *Corresponding author: scrathcifa@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00032.4 Effect of Feeding Tanniniferous Acacia nilotica Pod Meal on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Black Bengal Kids
      J.K. Paswan, Kaushalendra Kumar*, Sanjay Kumar, Chandramoni, P.K. Singh, Abhishek Kumar, Shahla Perween and Amitava Dey
      Department of Animal Nutrition Bihar Veterinary College, Patna-800 014, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Paswan, J.K., Kumar, K., Kumar, S., Chandramoni, Singh, P.K., Kumar, A., Parween, S. and Dey,A. 2017. Effect of feeding tanniniferous Acacia nilotica pod meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization of Black Bengal kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 333-341.

    The study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementation of tannin rich feed on growth performance and nutrient utilization of goats fed on tanniniferous babul (Acacia nilotica) pod meal. For growth study twenty-four Black Bengal male kids (3.5 months, 6.50±1.50 kg BW) were distributed into four equal groups. The experimental animals were fed graded level of babul pod meal (0, 10, 20 and 30 percent) mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0, 1.91, 3.82 and 5.73 percent in control, T1, T2 and T3 diet, respectively. The intake of different nutrients was numerically higher in T2 group as compared to control. There were no significant changes (P>0.05) in respect of nutrient digestibility. The N balance was 38.0% higher in T2 group as compared to control. The ADG was 11.21 and 25.48 percent higher in T1 and T2 group as compared to control, whereas reduction in BW and ADG was noted in T3 group. The feed conversion efficiency was significantly (P<0.05) better in t2 than control and t3 group. the fcr in 20% babul pod meal supplemented group was 22.60% lower than control group. it is concluded that locally available tanniniferous babul pod could be used as a feed constituents in the diets of goats.

    Key words: Babul pod, Goats, Growth performance, Tannin, Unconventional feed

    *Corresponding author: drkaushalivri@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00033.6 Performance of Goat Kids Fed Detoxified Castor Bean Meal Based Concentrate Feed Mixtures
      H. Nagesh, G.G. Bhavishya Kumar, T.M. Prabhu*, R.G. Gloridoss, K.C. Singh and B.N. Suresh
      Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Bengaluru-560 024, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Nagesh, H., Kumar, B.G.G., Prabhu, T.M., Gloridoss, R.G., Singh, K.C. and Suresh, B.N. 2017. Performance of goat kids fed detoxified castor bean meal based concentrate feed mixtures. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 343-351.

    In order to study the performance of stall-fed goat kids fed concentrate mixture containing detoxified castor (Ricinus communis) bean meal (CBM), 12 non-descript male goat kids (3-4 months old) were assigned equally in completely randomized design to three concentrate feed mixtures (CFM). The CFM prepared using groundnut cake (GNC) served as the control and the test CFMs were prepared using either 4% lime-treated or 2% salt-treated CBM replacing 100% GNC-protein. All animals received their daily DM requirement in the form of their respective CFM to the extent of 80% of CP requirement while the chaffed finger millet straw was provided ad libitum for 260 days. The DM intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in test diets fed groups than in control. however, no significant difference was observed in adg and fcr among different groups. the digestibility of proximate principles except cp was lower (p<0.05) in test diets compared to control. However, the digestibility of NDF and ADF as well as the retention of N, Ca and P were similar among different diets. The blood biochemical parameters viz., haemoglobin, SGPT, SGOT, alkaline phosphatase, serum total protein, albumin and globulin at different intervals of the experiment also remained similar among different treatments. The feed cost/kg live weight gain was comparable between different groups. It was inferred that CBM after detoxification can substitute 100% protein of conventional oil cake both nutritionally and economically for chevon production.

    Key words: Blood profile, Castor bean meal, Goat kids, Growth performance, Nutrient utilization.

    *Corresponding author: prabhutmann@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00034.8 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Butyric Acid on Growth Performance and Intestinal Microbial Load in Broiler Chickens
      Meesam Raza, Avishek Biswas*, A.B. Mandal and A.S. Yadav
      Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Raza, M., Biswas, A., Mandal, A.B. and Yadav, A.S. 2017. Effect of dietary supplementation of butyric acid on growth performance and intestinal microbial load in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 353-359.

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of using butyric acid (BA) in place of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) on performance and intestinal microflora in broiler chickens. Two hundred (200) day-old broiler chicks were housed and distributed randomly into four groups containing five replicates of 10 chicks in each replicate (4 treatments×5 replicates). The experiment had a randomized design. Four experimental diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 were formulated to contain no additive, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD) at 20 mg/kg diet and BA at 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. Body weight gain (g) increased (P<0.05) by the feeding of diets containing different levels of ba, but feed intake (g), feed conversion ratio (fcr) and mortality (%) did not differ significantly (p> 0.05). Significant reduction was observed in coliforms and Lactobacillus counts in cecal contents (28 and 42 d) and excreta (42 d), whereas, total plate counts (TPC) at 42 d were significantly reduced in BA supplemented groups as compared to other groups. From the results, it can be concluded that, BA could be a good alternative to AGP for growth performance and improving gut microbial status in broiler chickens.

    Key words: Antibiotic, Broiler, Butyric acids, Intestinal microflora, Performance.

    *Corresponding author: drbiswas007@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00035.X Effect of Feeding Supplemental Concentrate on Nutrient Utilization in Dromedary Camels under Sustained Working Conditions
      Lokesh Gupta* and G.S. Tiwari
      Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology Udaipur-313 001, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Gupta, L. and Tiwari, G.S. 2017. Effect of feeding supplemental concentrate on nutrient utilization in dromedary camels under sustained working conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 361- 365.

    An experiment was conducted using three dromedary camels (545-640 kg BW; 8-10 years old) to study the effect of feeding supplemental concentrates on nutrient utilization under sustained working conditions in rotary mode of operation. The camels were offered gram (Cicer arietinum) straw as basal diet (T1 ) in all the treatments; but in treatments T2 and T3 the camels were additionally supplemented with concentrate mixture having 65 and 75% TDN, respectively. The supplementation of concentrate to gram straw improved (P<0.05) nutrient digestibility. likewise, dcp and tdn contents were higher in t3 followed by t2 and t1 . the dm intake was also improved in response to supplementation of concentrates and was higher in t3 as compared to t2 and t1 ; this trend was also reflected in higher daily consumption of dcp and tdn. the voluntary water intake was significantly higher in treatment groups fed supplemental concentrates when compared to the control group fed gram straw alone. it is concluded that supplementation of sole gram straw diet with a concentrate having 75% tdn improved dm intake and nutrient utilization by working camels.

    Key words: Camels, Energy concentrates, Nutrient utilization, Optimal ration, Working conditions.

    *Corresponding author: lokgupta76@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00036.1 Aspects of Safety in Production of Feeds – A Review
      D.B. Matuszek and J.B. Królczyk,*
      Department of Biosystems Engineering Faculty of Production Engineering and Logistics Opole University of Technology, Mikolajczyka Street 5, 45-271 Opole, Poland
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Matuszek, D.B. and Królczyk, J.B. 2017. Aspects of safety in production of feeds–a review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 367-385.

    The safety of food products is one of the priorities of the policy of many countries in the world. In the European Union a complex strategy of food safety called ‘from farm to fork’ is realized and it covers: food safety, animal health and well-being as well as plant health. The feeds play the key role in the world food industry assuring the production of raw materials and food products of animal origin. One of the most serious threats in feeds is Salmonella spp., in processed crops and industrial compound feeds. The realization of the given stages, starting from plants production, their storage, processing up to obtaining the final product in the form of feeds shall take place based on GAP-Good Agriculture Practice, GMP-Good manufacture practice and GSP-Good Storage Practice. An important element in feeds production safety monitoring is also HACCP (Hazard analysis and critical control points) system. The process of mixing feed is a key stage influencing the quality of the obtained product, and thus conditioning safety of the production. Aim of this article is to present current trends and issues related to the technology of production and quality of feed in terms of food safety, particularly methods of manufacture. In this work such issues as legislative and institutional actions, chemical, microbiological or physical threats, quality management and control tools in the feed production as well as mixing, pelleting and methods for compound feeds homogeneity assessment are presented.

    Key words: Compound, Feed, Homogeneity, Production, Quality, Safety.

    *Corresponding author: j.krolczyk@po.opole.pl

  • 1. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00001.4
    Influence of Dietary Particle Size and Sources of Calcium and Vitamin D3 on Production Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Calcium Concentration of ISA Brown Laying Hens
    O.A. Olafadehan*, A.A. Njidda, S.A. Okunade, K.J. Awosanmi, T.O. Ijanmi and A. Raymond
    2. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00002.6
    Evaluation of Magnesium Sulphate in Broiler Chicken During Hot-Dry Summer Using Zoo Technical, Molecular and Physio-Biochemical Tools
    Rokade, J.J., A.S. Shinde, S.K. Bhanja, Praveen K. Tyagi, Pramod K. Tyagi and A.B. Mandal*
    3. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00003.8
    Effect of Copper Supplementation on Performance, Eggshell Quality and Heterophil: Lymphocyte Ratio in Aged Laying Hens Housed at Different Stocking Densities
    O. Olgun* and A. Aygun
    4. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00004.X
    Blood, Bone and Faecal Concentrations of Phosphorus, Calcium and Magnesium in Communally Grazed Cattle in the North West Province of South Africa
    B.G. Mokolopi-Kgobe* and D.E. Beighle1
    5. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00005.1
    Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate - Lipid Ratio on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Goldfish (Carassius auratus)
    S. Belsare*, H.S. Dhaker, A. Pawase, V. Joshi, S. Mohite and S. Shelke
    6. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00006.3
    Mineral Profiles and Metabolic Status of Animals in North Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha
    M. Panda, N. Panda*, R.K. Swain, B. Panigrahi , P.C. Behera and B.C. Das
    7. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00007.5
    Nutrient Composition, Growth Response and Economics of Production of Rabbits Fed Diet Containing Graded Levels of Fermented Cassava Starch Residues
    S.O. Aro, A.B. Falowo* and T.O. Omojola
    8. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00008.7
    Effect of Microbial Enzyme Supplementation to Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) Meal Based Diets on Performance, Bone Mineral Parameters and Carcass Characteristics of Free Range Chickens during Nursery Phase
    S.V. Rama Rao*, B. Prakash, M.V.L.N. Raju and A.K. Panda
    9. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00009.9
    Effects of Lysophospholipid Emulsifier Supplementation in the Diet of Sows
    J.H. Park, J.S. Jeong and I.H. Kim*
    10. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00010.5
    Interaction of Acidified Sodium Chlorite with Dietary Energy and Feed Enzymes in Broiler Chicken
    R. Thakur* and A.B. Mandal
    11. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00011.7
    Effect of Dietary Esterified Glucomannan on the Performance of Broiler Chickens During Experimental Aflatoxicosis
    M.R. Wade and D. Sapcota*
    12. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00012.9
    Performance, Haematological and Serum Biochemical Profile of Cockerels Fed Diets Supplemented with Fermented Moringa oleifera Seeds
    R.M.O. Kayode and A.J. Afolayan*
    13. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00013.0
    Incorporation of Ghee Residue as a Feed Ingredient for Labeo rohita Fingerlings
    P. Singh, B.N. Paul*, G.C. Rana, R.N. Mandal, P.P. Chakrabarti and S.S. Giri
    14. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00014.2
    Influence of Extract Mixture from Scutellaria baicalensis and Lonicera japonica on Egg Production, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles and Egg Quality in Laying Hens Reared in Hot Humid Season
    Wen-Chao Liu and In-Ho Kim*
    15. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00015.4
    Dietary Lysine Requirement for Optimal Productivity and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Indigenous Venda Chicken
    O.J. Alabi# , J.W. Ng’ambi , D. Norris , E.F. Mbajiorgu , M. Mabelebele and C.A. Mbajiorgu
    16. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00016.6
    Efficacy of Propionic, Benzoic and Tartaric Acids in Preventing Biosynthesis of Aflatoxins in Poultry Feed
    Ram Singh*, A.B. Mandal and Avishek Biswas
    17. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00017.8
    Effects of Bale Density and Number of Stretch Film Layers on Chemical Composition and Silage Quality Class of Sorghum Bale Silage
    C. Yildiz
    18. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00018.X
    In Vitro Fermentation and Methane Production with Diets of Varying Roughage (Prosopis cineraria leaves) to Concentrate Ratio
    P. Meena , A. Uddin, M.K. Tripathi and V.K. Paswan*
    19. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00019.1
    Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids in Combination on Performance and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicken
    V.R. Ramigani, J.V. Ramana*, D. Srinivasa Rao, S. Shakila and J. Suresh
       
      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00001.4 Influence of Dietary Particle Size and Sources of Calcium and Vitamin D3 on Production Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Calcium Concentration of ISA Brown Laying Hens
      J.H. Park, J.S. Jeong, S.I. Lee and I.H. Kim*
      Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, 330-714, South Korea
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Park, J.H., Jeong, J.S., Lee, S.I. and Kim, I.H. 2017. Influence of dietary particle size and sources of calcium and vitamin D3 on production performance, egg quality, and blood calcium concentration of ISA brown laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 1-12.

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with calcium varying in particle size and different calcium sources on production performance, egg quality, and blood calcium concentration with comparing vitamin D3 supplementation in laying hens. A total of 250 ISA brown laying hens were used in a 7 wk feeding experiment and randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 10 birds each. The treatments were TRT1 (basal diet+6% small particle limestone (SPL:<0.8 mm)+1.5% large particle limestone (lpl<0.8 mm), TRT2 (basal diet+3% SPL+4.5% LPL), TRT3 (basal diet+3% SPL+4.455% LPL+0.045% large particle oyster shell (LPO)), TRT4 (basal diet+3% SPL+4.41% LPL+0.09% LPO), and TRT5 (basal diet+3% SPL+4.498% LPL+0.002% 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol). Overall, our results suggested that calcium particle size, different calcium sources, and vitamin D3 had no significant influence on egg production performance, egg quality, and blood calcium concentration, however, there was a linear tendency. In other words, LPL prolongs retention time in the digestive tract, resulting in higher blood calcium concentration. Additionally, vitamin D3 supplementation improved this effect clearly compared with TRT1 (P<0.05).

    Key words: Calcium source, 1,25-dihydroxycalciferol, Egg quality, Laying hen, Particle size.

    *Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

      DOI:10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00002.6
    Evaluation of Magnesium Sulphate in Broiler Chicken During Hot-Dry Summer Using Zoo Technical, Molecular and Physio-Biochemical Tools
      Rokade, J.J., A.S. Shinde, S.K. Bhanja, Praveen K. Tyagi, Pramod K. Tyagi and A.B. Mandal*
      ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Rokade, J.J., Shinde, A.S., Bhanja, S.K., Tyagi, Praveen K., Tyagi, Pramod K. and Mandal, A.B. 2017. Evaluation of magnesium sulphate in broiler chicken during hot-dry summer using zoo technical, molecular and physio-biochemical tools. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 13-23.

    To evaluate the role of magnesium sulphate in mitigating heat stress, it was tried at two level in diets during hot (April–May, 31.0±0.7° to 37.0±1.4°C, Rh, %: 58.0±1.3-70.1±0.6) summer. Broiler chicks were reared on a standard diet up to 14 days of age and thereafter chicks were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments viz., T1 (Control group: Standard diet), T2 (standard diet with magnesium sulphate @ 1.2 g/kg) and T3 (standard diet with magnesium sulphate @ 2.4 g/kg) and reared upto 42 days of age. Each dietary treatment was fed to four replicated groups of 8 birds each and one more replicate to study blood metabolites and HSP70 gene expression. The humoral and cell mediated immune response was studied on 28th day. Hematological and blood biochemical parameters were studied on 28th and 42nd day of age. Serum corticosteron level was also estimated at 42nd day of age. Expression of HSP 70 in jejunum tissues were studied on 28th and 42nd day of age using Real time PCR. Significant improvement was seen in live weight gain (P<0.01) at 2.4 g />kg and FCR (P<0.001) in 1.2 or 2.4 g />kg magnesium sulphate supplemented groups. The percentage of haemoglobin, protein (P<0.001), ast (p<0.001) and ALT (P<0.001) increased significantly while H:L ratio, serum corticosteron (P<0.001) and serum cholesterol decreased significantly at 4th and 6th week of age due to magnesium sulphate supplementation. Significant down regulation of relative expression of HSP 70 in jejunum tissues (at 4th and 6th week of age) was observed in magnesium sulphate supplemented group. Based on this study it is suggested that supplementation of magnesium sulphate in heat stressed broilers will improve performance and welfare.

    Key words: Broiler, Corticosteron, Heat stress, HSP 70, Magnesium sulphate.

    *Corresponding author: oolgun@selcuk.edu.tr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00003.8
    Effect of Copper Supplementation on Performance, Eggshell Quality and Heterophil: Lymphocyte Ratio in Aged Laying Hens Housed at Different Stocking Densities
      O. Olgun* and A. Aygun
      Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Selcuk University, 42075 Konya, Turkey
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Olgun, O. and Aygun, A. 2017. Effect of copper supplementation on performance, eggshell quality and heterophil: lymphocyte ratio in aged laying hens housed at different stocking densities. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 25-33.

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of additional dietary copper on performance, eggshell quality and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio in aged laying hens housed at different stocking densities. For this purpose, 216 Nick Chick laying hens of 106 weeks of age, were housed at three different stocking densities i.e. 500, 417 and 357 cm2 /hen, respectively and copper (0, 150 and 300 mg/kg) was added in the basal diet for a period of 10 weeks using a 3x3 factorial arrangement. The effect of the treatments on body weight gain, feed intake, damaged eggs, specific gravity and eggshell breaking strength were not significant (P>0.05). However, eggshell thickness was improved (P<0.05) with increasing stocking density in the aged laying hens. additionally, added copper had a significant effect on egg production (p<0.05), egg weight (P<0.01), egg mass (P<0.01), feed conversion ratio (P<0.01) and eggshell weight (P<0.01). While added copper had a significant adverse effect on eggshell weight, the addition of copper had a significant positive effect on performance parameters. Highest stocking density resulted in increased (P<0.05) heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Addition of 150 and 300 mg/kg copper in the diet of the birds kept at 500 cm2 /hen stocking density reduced heterophil:lymphocyte ratio as compared to other groups. It may be concluded that supplementation copper in the diet of aged laying hens decreased stress under normal stocking density, while stress was increased to the birds under high stocking density.

    Key words: Copper, Eggshell quality, Heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, Stocking density, Stress.

    *Corresponding author: oolgun@selcuk.edu.tr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00004.X
    Blood, Bone and Faecal Concentrations of Phosphorus, Calcium and Magnesium in Communally Grazed Cattle in the North West Province of South Africa
      B.G. Mokolopi-Kgobe* and D.E. Beighle
      Department of Agriculture and Animal Health College of Agriculture and Environmental Services University of South Africa, Science Campus, Florida 1710, South Africa
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Mokolopi-Kgobe, B.G. and Beighle, D.E. 2017. Blood, bone and faecal concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in communally grazed cattle in the North West Province of South Africa. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 35-42.

    Twenty five mix breed cattle between the ages of 6 months and 2 years with a mean body mass of 337 kg were randomly selected from a herd exclusively on communal grazing and receiving no supplements and were used to evaluate how animals were able to cope on communal grazing without supplements. Bone, faecal and blood samples were sampled once monthly for 12 months and pasture samples were collected from grazing. Faecal P was significantly (P<0.05) higher, (4.70 mg />g) in March 2006 compared to all other months and was significantly (P<0.05) lower (1.17 mg />g) in July 2006 than all other months. This reflects grass P which was significantly (P<0.05) higher (2.4 mg />g) in March 2006 compared with all other months and significantly (P<0.05) lower (0.33 mg />g) in July 2006 compared to all other months and the rainfall which was also higher (111.1 mm) in March 2006 and lower (0 mm) in July 2006. The results showed that animals were not able to maintain normal values of P, Ca and Mg, especially of blood P when dietary minerals were limiting. Animals were able to use homeostatic mechanisms to maintain bone Mg in the face of deficient concentrations of Mg in the grass.

    Key words: Blood, Bone, Faecal, Minerals, Pasture and Rainfall.

    *Corresponding author: satyajitbelsare@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00005.1
    Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate - Lipid Ratio on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Goldfish (Carassius auratus)
      S. Belsare*, H.S. Dhaker, A. Pawase, V. Joshi, S. Mohite and S. Shelke
      College of Fisheries, Ratnagiri-415 629, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Belsare, S., Dhaker, H.S., Pawase, A., Joshi, V., Mohite, S. and Shelke, S. 2017. Effect of dietary carbohydrate - lipid ratios on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 43-53.

    The effect of dietary carbohydrate : lipid (CHO:L) ratios on growth performance, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus (1.69±0.01 g) were investigated for 8 weeks. Juvenile gold fish (n=225) were randomly allocated to five treatments groups (T1 to T5) with 3 replicates of 15 fish in each. Diets were iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-energetic (18.52 MJ/g) with varying CHO:L ratios (1.04 to 38.4). Weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) improved significantly (P<0.05) as dietary cho:l ratio increased, however, this trend was not maintained above cho:l ratio of 4.33. hepatosomatic index (hsi) increased significantly (p<0.05) as dietary CHO:L ratio increased, whereas viscerosomatic index (VSI) followed an opposite trend (P<0.05). Opposite to moisture content, whole body lipid content increased significantly (P<0.05) as dietary CHO:L ratios decreased, while whole body protein showed little difference among the treatments. Protease activity of intestine and liver of fish fed varying CHO:L diets did not show any discernible changes among the dietary treatments. However, intestinal and liver lipase activity decreased, while intestinal α-amylase activity increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. Based on second-order polynomial regression analysis of SGR, the optimal dietary carbohydrate and lipid levels for young ones of C. auratus were 325 g/kg and 84 g/kg respectively, corresponding to dietary CHO:L ratio of 3.86.

    Key words: Body composition, Carassius auratus, Carbohydrate utilization, Growth, Iso-nitrogenous.

    *Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00006.3
    Mineral Profiles and Metabolic Status of Animals in North Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha
      M. Panda, N. Panda*, R.K. Swain, B. Panigrahi, P.C. Behera and B.C. Das
      Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Panda, M., Panda, N., Swain, R.K., Panigrahi, B., Behera, P.C. and Das, B.C. 2017. Mineral profiles and metabolic status of animals in north eastern ghat zone of odisha. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 55-64.

    Feeds, fodders and serum of cows in eight villages from two districts of North Eastern Ghat (NEG) agro-climatic zone of Odisha were collected and analysed for macro and micro mineral contents and metabolic profiles of animals. Among the roughages, paddy straw was found to be deficient in calcium, phosphorus and manganese. Paddy straw contained 0.27 to 0.32% of calcium and 0.09 to 0.13% phosphorus which was lowest among all the roughages and concentrates. Compounded feed and ground nut oil seed cake had the highest calcium and phosphorus contents, respectively. The content of manganese, copper and zinc in different feeds and fodders in this zone varied from 19.16 to 55.58, 5.10 to 41.36 and 25.80 to 49.47 ppm, respectively; whereas, the iron content of the feed and fodders were above 100 ppm which is above the critical level. From the serum profile study it was found that the percentage of animals deficient in Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Cu were 68.3, 54.3, 60.4, 62.0 and 40.0, respectively; whereas only 2.5 and 13% of the animals showed less serum Fe and Mn concentration, respectively. Average serum concentration of glucose, cholesterol, protein, albumin and globulin of the animals were 43.99 mg/ dl, 66.34 mg/dl, 5.75 g/dl, 2.34 g/dl and 3.42 g/dl respectively. It was recommended that supplementation minerals like Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Cu along with protein rich feeds may be given in the diets of cattle for better health and productivity.

    Key words: Cattle, Feeds and Fodders, Mineral, North Eastern Ghat.

    *Corresponding author: npandaouat@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00007.5
    Nutrient Composition, Growth Response and Economics of Production of Rabbits Fed Diet Containing Graded Levels of Fermented Cassava Starch Residues
      S.O. Aro, A.B. Falowo* and T.O. Omojola
      Department of Animal Production and Health Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo States, Nigeria
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Aro, S.O., Falowo, A.B. and Omojola, T.O. 2017. Nutrient composition, growth response and economics of production of rabbits fed diet containing graded levels of fermented cassava starch residues. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 65-73

    This study was conducted to compare the nutrient composition of unfermented cassava starch (UFCSR) with microbially fermented cassava starch residues (MFCSR) and to investigate the effect of graded levels of MFCSR on growth performance and economics of rabbits. Thirty rabbits with an average initial live weight of 624.50±42.28 g, aged 6-8 weeks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with six rabbits per treatment during a 12-weeks feeding trial. Cassava starch residues (CSR) were fermented with three different strains of microorganisms, viz Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus coryneformis and Aspergillus fumigatus, for five days to obtain the MFCSR. The MFCSR was included at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 percent levels in diets D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5, respectively. The fermentation of CSR with three strains of microorganisms resulted into higher (P<0.05) me (2760±10.20 kcal />kg), crude protein (7.00±0.09%), ash (3.04±0.16%) contents and lower crude fibre (14.77±0.43%), cyanide (9.84±0.14 mg/kg), tannins (0.05±0.01g/100g) and phytates (7.47±0.28 mg/kg) contents compared to unfermented cassava starch residues (UFCSR). There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the body weight gained (bwg), feed consumed, feed conversion ratio (fcr), cost of feed per unit weight gained for all treatments. rabbits on the diet d3 had the highest bwg (597.50±48.23g), followed by diet d1 (520.00±48.23g) and least on diet d5 (384.00±48.23g). similarly, rabbit on the diet d3 had best frc (8.43±0.85) compared to other treatments. the highest profit was recorded from sales of rabbits on diet d3 (n 226.35±12.55), followed by diet d1 (n 121.70±12.55) and least on diet d5 (n 51.61±12.55). considering both the economics of production and performance characteristics, 30% of mfscr was found to be the best level of inclusion for optimum rabbit production.

    Key words: Cassava starch residues, Economics, Fermentation, Nutrient composition, Performance, Rabbits.

    *Corresponding author: anddele2013@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00008.7
    Effect of Microbial Enzyme Supplementation to Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) Meal Based Diets on Performance, Bone Mineral Parameters and Carcass Characteristics of Free Range Chickens during Nursery Phase
      S.V. Rama Rao*, B. Prakash, M.V.L.N. Raju and A.K. Panda
      ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Rama Rao, S.V., Prakash, B., Raju, M.V.L.N. and Panda, A.K. 2017. Effect of microbial enzyme supplementation to guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) meal based diets on performance, bone mineral parameters and carcass characteristics of free range chickens during nursery phase. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 75-86.

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the possibility of utilizing toasted guar meal (GM) with microbial enzymes in the diets of Vanaraja chicken. During the experiment I, soybean meal control diet (SBCD) was formulated to contain 2600 ME kcal/kg and 20% protein. Basal diet (BD) was formulated to contain 20% GM with similar energy and protein. The GMBD was supplemented with five microbial enzymes independently and in combination. Each diet was fed ad libitum up to 42 days of age. Inclusion of GM depressed (P<0.01) the body weight gain (bwg) compared to the group fed sbcd. supplementation of individual enzymes (except protease) or combination increased (p<0.01) BWG compared to GMBD groups . The feed conversion ratio (FCR) in groups fed GMBD with combination of enzymes was similar to SBCD fed group. During the experiment II, the GMBD was supplemented with three concentrations each of mannanase and xylanase, which was compared with the SBCD and GMBD. Inclusion of GM depressed (P<0.01) the BWG and FCR. However, enzyme supplementation to GMBD improved the BWG and FCR compared to the group fed GMBD. Supplementation of mannanase and xylanase (6000 and 3250 or 4875 U/kg; 4000 and 3250 U/kg, respectively) to GMBD improved performance, which was similar to SBCD fed birds. Based on the data, it is concluded that toasted GM could be included up to 20% diet without affecting body weight gain and feed efficiency in Vanaraja chicken by supplementing the diet with higher concentrations of mannanase and xylanase.

    Key words: Bone ash, Guar meal, Microbial enzymes, Performance, Vanaraja birds.

    *Corresponding author: svramarao1@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00009.9
    Effects of Lysophospholipid Emulsifier Supplementation in the Diet of Sows
      J.H. Park, J.S. Jeong and I.H. Kim*
      Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714, South Korea
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Park, J.H., Jeong, J.S. and Kim, I.H. 2017. Effects of lysophospholipid emulsifier supplementation in the diet of sows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 87-93.

    A total of 12 (Yorkshire×Landrace) sows (450 to 500 day old) with an average BW of 227.4±18.7 kg were used to evaluate the effect of 0.05% lysophospholipids on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of sows and piglets during the experimental period. Pigs were assigned to 3 treatment groups: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) CON+0.05% lysophospholipids after farrowing (TRT1) for 3 weeks, and 3) CON+0.05% lysophospholipids from 2 weeks before farrowing upto 3 weeks after farrowing (TRT2) i.e. for 5 weeks. Each treatment group comprised 4 sows. TRT1 and TRT2 groups showed no significant effects on growth performance of sows and piglets and nutrient digestibility of sows, as compared with CON (P>0.05). TRT1 group sows had decreased BW, after farrowing 1.2% and weanling 2.5%; increased BW loss, 7.8%; and increased litter, 3.4%. Likewise, TRT2 group sows had decreased BW, weanling 2.0%; increased BW loss, 27.8%; and increased litter, 14.9%, as compared with CON. Piglets on 0.05% lysophospholipids supplement had improved BW (TRT1, up to 12.4%; and TRT2, up to 18.0%) and an average daily gain (TRT1, up to 18.1%; and TRT2, up to 24.9%), as compared with CON, even though there were no significant effects. The overall results indicated that 0.05% lysophospholipids supplementation does not increase growth performance of sows but might be reflected as positive growth performance in piglets.

    Key words: Growth performance, Lysophospholipids, Nutrient digestibility, Piglet, Sow

    *Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00010.5
    Interaction of Acidified Sodium Chlorite with Dietary Energy and Feed Enzymes in Broiler Chicken
      R. Thakur* and A.B. Mandal
      Division of Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Thakur, R. and Mandal, A.B. 2017. Interaction of acidified sodium chlorite with dietary energy and feed enzymes in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 95-106.

    In today’s world, there is need to sanitize feeds and enhance energy utilization from available feed resources in poultry. So the present experiment was conducted to study the interaction of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) with dietary energy and feed enzymes in broiler chicken. Twelve diets with two energy levels (2800 and 3000 kcal/kg) each treated with 0, 100 and 250 ppm of ASC and with or without addition of feed enzymes (30 g per quintal) were formulated following a 2×2×3 factorial design. Each dietary treatment was offered to respective group, having 4 replicates of 8 chicks in each. Results revealed that feed energy level accrued significant variation (P<0.001) in live weight and the birds which received 3000 kcal />kg energy had significantly (P<0.001) higher body weight. the feed intake was not affected by either the level of dietary energy or exogenous enzyme supplementation but asc level at 250 ppm suppressed feed intake. the ph and water holding capacity of meat samples was similar amongst all the treatment groups, however, asc treatment increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substance value (p<0.001) in a dose dependent manner. Higher dietary energy also increased the weight of spleen and improved humoral immunity. From this study, it may be concluded the zoo-technical performance and immunocompetence was significantly better in birds offered higher energy feed and apparently no interaction was observed between ASC, dietary energy level and feed enzymes. On the other hand oxidative stability of meat was compromised at higher level of ASC.

    Key words: Acidified sodium chlorite, Broiler, Energy, Enzymes, Immuno-competence.

    *Corresponding author: drtcari@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00011.7
    Effect of Dietary Esterified Glucomannan on the Performance of Broiler Chickens During Experimental Aflatoxicosis
      M.R. Wade and D. Sapcota*
      Department of Poultry Science College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati-781 022, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Wade, M.R. and Sapcota, D. 2017. Effect of dietary esterified glucomannan on the performance of broiler chickens during experimental aûatoxicosis. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 107-116.

    The amelioration effect of dietary esterified glucomannan (EGM) was studied in experimental aflatoxicosis using broiler chickens. Day-old chicks (n=270) were divided into 6 treatment groups, containing 45 numbers in each and the study was made in triplicates for 6 weeks. A control ration was prepared with conventional feedstuffs and an experimental diet was made from this ration after incorporating aflatoxin (AF) B1 at 300 ppb. From experimental diet, three rations were prepared by mixing EGM at graded levels i.e., 0.025, 0.05 or 0.10%; whereas, the positive control diet had 0.05% EGM. Significantly (P<0.05) higher bw gain was recorded in the control as well as positive control birds as compared to all treated groups. toxin-alone fed group showed significantly lowest bw. feeding of egm could partially improve the bw of toxin fed broilers. the feed consumption in toxin-fed groups were significantly depressed; however, there was partial improvement due to the supplementation of egm in their diets. the feed efficiency was also inferior in the toxin-alone fed group; however, when egm was supplemented there was significant (p<0.05), though partial improvement. The cost of feeding per kg live weight was found to be lowest in control group whereas highest in toxin-alone fed group; nevertheless, dietary EGM reduced cost of feeding. The highest performance index was noted in control group whereas the lowest in toxin-alone fed group. Among the various treatments, 0.10 per cent of EGM gave the best results.

    Key words: Aflatoxicosis, Broiler chicken, Esterified glucomannan, Performance.

    *Corresponding author: debensapcota@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00012.9
    Performance, Haematological and Serum Biochemical Profile of Cockerels Fed Diets Supplemented with Fermented Moringa oleifera Seeds
      R.M.O. Kayode and A.J. Afolayan*
      Medicinal Plant and Economic Development Research Centre Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kayode, R.M.O. and Afolayan, A.J. 2017. Performance, haematological and serum biochemical profile of cockerels fed diets supplemented with fermented Moringa oleifera seeds. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 117-126.

    Attempt to combat the increasing cost of animal feed has motivated researchers interest in nonconventional feedstuffs. Moringa oleifera is known for its high nutritional and medicinal properties. Utilization of the seeds as animal feed ingredient is limited due to inherent anti-nutritional factors. This study investigated the performance, serum biochemical, haematological and carcass quality criteria of cockerels fed processed moringa seeds. The seeds were fermented with culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (24×106 cfu/g) before incorporation in cockerel diets. Four diets were formulated consisting of a control and processed seed based diets. Ninety six un-sexed day old cockerels were fed ad libitum and water administered twice daily for six weeks. Performance indices and blood samples were taken for analysis. Feed intake and weight gain were higher (P<0.05) in cockerels fed fermented moringa based diets compared with those fed unfermented diet. the body weight of cockerels fed fermented moringa oleifera seed meal (fmsm) were not different (p<0.05) from the control. Feed conversion ratios of cockerels fed fermented diets were not different (P<0.05) from the control. The haematological indices of the treatment birds and control were within normal range for a healthy bird. Cholesterol and triglyceride constituents of the cockerels fed moringa based diets were generally lower than control. The dressed carcass, thigh and breast weights of the chickens fed diet FMSM and control were not significantly different (P<0.05). However, they were higher compared with cockerels fed Fermented and Unfermented Moringa oleifera seed meal blend (FUMSM) and Unfermented Moringa oleifera seed meal (UMSM). This study suggested 20% inclusion of fermented Moringa oleifera seeds in cockerels’ diet without deleterious effect.

    Key words: Blood parameters, Carcass quality, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Moringa seed, Performance.

    *Corresponding author: aafolayan@ufh.ac.za

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00013.0
    Incorporation of Ghee Residue as a Feed Ingredient for Labeo rohita Fingerlings
      P. Singh, B.N. Paul*, G.C. Rana, R.N. Mandal, P.P. Chakrabarti and S.S. Giri
      Regional Research Centre of Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Rahara, Kolkata-700 118, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Singh, P., Paul, B.N., Rana, G.C., Mandal, R.N., Chakrabarti, P.P. and Giri, S.S. 2017. Incorporation of ghee residue as feed ingredient for labeo rohita fingerlings. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 127-136.

    A 96-day feeding trial was conducted in four ponds of 0.04 ha each to evaluate the efficacy of ghee residue based diet against control diet on growth performance of rohu fingerlings (Av. wt. 10.81±0.91). The feed was prepared with (GR20) and without (GR0 ) 20% ghee residue (GR) along with other feed ingredients. The net weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and daily growth co-efficient during the 96d trial were significantly (P<0.05) higher in ghee residue fed group (gr20). the fcr also improved significantly (p> 0.05) in GR20 (1.75±0.05) as compared to the GR0 (2.23±0.08) group. The specific growth rate and specific feeding rate did not differ significantly between the treatments. The carcass composition revealed that the crude fat content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group (gr20). however, protein ash and moisture content did not differ significantly between the groups. the minerals content of rohu fingerlings did not differ between the groups. the fatty acid profile of the fish fillet after the experiment revealed that both mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid composition was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the group GR20 compared to GR0 . It is concluded that incorporation of 20% ghee residue in the diet resulted in better growth performance in rohu fingerlings.

    Key words: Ghee residue, Pond, Labeo rohita, Growth and Carcass composition.

    *Corresponding author: bnpaulcifa@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00014.2
    Influence of Extract Mixture from Scutellaria baicalensis and Lonicera japonica on Egg Production, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles and Egg Quality in Laying Hens Reared in Hot Humid Season
      Wen-Chao Liu and In-Ho Kim*
      Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714, South Korea
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Liu, W.C. and Kim, I.H. 2017. Influence of extract mixture from scutellaria baicalensis and lonicera japonica on egg production, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles and egg quality in laying hens reared in hot humid season. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 137-146.

    Heat stress is a demanding issue that results in substantial economic losses for the hens’ husbandry industry. A 8-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the dietary herbal extract mixture (Scutellaria baicalensis and Lonicera japonica, HEM) supplementation as a means of ameliorative strategy against the adverse effects of seasonal heat stress on performance of laying hens. In total, 288 ISA Brown 25- wk-old layers were divided into three treatments: CON, basal diet; T1, basal diet with 0.025% HEM; T2, basal diet with 0.05% HEM. There were no differences (P>0.05) in egg production and nutrient digestibility among treatments throughout the experimental period. The HEM supplementation increased (P<0.05) eggshell thickness and eggshell strength during 4th and 8th wk, respectively. compared with con, yolk height was increased (p<0.01) in response to HEM treatments during the 8th wk. The Haugh unit was improved (P<0.01) by the addition of HEM in 4th wk and 8th wk. Additionally, there was a significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum cortisol concentration upon dietary supplementation of 0.05% HEM. In conclusion, precised HEM supplementation could improve eggshell strength and shelf life in laying hens when reared under hot climatic conditions.

    Key words: Cortisol, Egg quality, Heat stress, Herbal extract, Laying hens.

    *Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00015.4
    Dietary Lysine Requirement for Optimal Productivity and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Indigenous Venda Chicken
      O.J. Alabi#, J.W. Ng’ambi, D. Norris, E.F. Mbajiorgu, M. Mabelebele and C.A. Mbajiorgu
      Research Office, University of Limpopo Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Alabi, O.J., Ng’ambi, J.W., Norris, D., Mbajiorgu, E.F., Mabelebele, M. and Mbajiorgu, C.A. 2017. Dietary lysine requirement for optimal productivity and carcass characteristics of growing indigenous venda chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 147-155.

    A study was conducted to determine the levels of dietary lysine requirements for optimal productivity and carcass characteristics of growing indigenous Venda chicken from 1–13 wks of age involving 200 unsexed day-old indigenous Venda chicks during first experiment and 160 female chicks during the second experiment. In each feed trial, the chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments with varying lysine levels L6 (0.6%), L8 (0.8%), L10 (1.0%) and L12 (1.2%) in a completely randomized design. L-Lysine-HCl at the expense of inert filler (sand) was used to balance the diet. The initial LW of the birds were taken and at weekly intervals thereafter. At 91d of age all the chickens in each pen were slaughtered and the carcass and haematological parameters determined. Results showed that feed intake, growth rate at the starter and growing phases were influenced (P<0.05) by dietary lysine level. carcass weight, dressing percentage, breast meat and drumstick weights were also influenced (p<0.05) by dietary lysine level. However, dietary lysine level had no effect (P>0.05) on FCR, metabilosable energy and mortality at starter and growing phases. Furthermore, thigh, wings, fat pad weights and haematological parameters were not influenced (P>0.05) by the dietary lysine treatments. Dietary lysine levels of 0.97 and 1.07% DM optimized feed intake and growth rate at the starter phase, respectively. While dietary lysine levels of 0.82 and 0.94 % DM optimized feed intake and growth rate, respectively, at the growing phase. Dietary lysine levels of 0.91, 0.96, 0.98 and 0.93% DM optimized carcass weight, dressing percentage, breast meat and drumstick weights, respectively. These results have implications on ration formulation for indigenous chickens.

    Key words: Carcass characteristics, Haematological, Lysine, Requirements.

    *Corresponding author: ejifun@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00016.6
    Efficacy of Propionic, Benzoic and Tartaric Acids in Preventing Biosynthesis of Aflatoxins in Poultry Feed
      Ram Singh*, A.B. Mandal and Avishek Biswas
      Division of Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Singh, R., Mandal, A.B. and Biswas, A. 2017. Efficacy of propionic, benzoic and tartaric acids in preventing biosynthesis of aflatoxins in poultry feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 157-164

    A poultry feed was prepared using conventional feed ingredients which is free from aflatoxins. The moisture content of the feed was adjusted at 11, 13, 15 and 17%, respectively. The feeds with each level of moisture were then mixed with propionic, benzoic or tartaric acid each at various concentrations of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50%, respectively. Samples were taken in a 500 ml conical flask in duplicate, inoculated with fresh spores mould (Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999) producing aflatoxins, incubated at room temperature for a period of one month and then analysed for the presence of aflatoxins (AFB1 , AFB2 , AFG1 and AFG2 ). The results showed that at 11 % moisture level in feed, aflatoxin biosynthesis did not occur in any of the treatments. However, with the increase in moisture content in feed from 11 to 17%, there was increase in production of the aflatoxins. Complete inhibition of aflatoxins synthesis at 13% moisture level was achieved at 0.25% propionic or 0.30% benzoic or 0.40% tartaric acid concentration. The biosynthesis of any of the aflatoxins was completely inhibited at 0.50% propionic or benzoic acid in feed containing 15% moisture. However, propionic or benzoic or tartaric citric acid at 0.50% level in feed, failed to completely inhibit the synthesis of any of the four fractions of aflatoxins in feeds containing 17% moisture level, though with the increased concentrations of acids, the biosynthesis of total as well as individual fractions of aflatoxins decreased. It is thus concluded that the production of aflatoxin at 13% moisture level in poultry feed can be completely inhibited by adding propionic acid @ 0.25% or benzoic acid @ 0.30% or tartaric acid @ 0.40%. However, the level of organic acids varied with incresing level of moisture in the diet. Further, propionic acid was more efficaceous than benzoic or tartaric acid in inhibiting the synthesis of aflatoxins.

    Key words: Aflatoxin, Aspergillus parasiticus, Benzoic acid, Feed, Propionic acid, Tartaric acid.

    *Corresponding author: carirsingh@yahoo.co.in

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00017.8
    Effects of Bale Density and Number of Stretch Film Layers on Chemical Composition and Silage Quality Class of Sorghum Bale Silage
      C. Yildiz
      University of Ataturk, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agriculture Machinery, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Yildiz, C. 2017. Effects of bale density and number of stretch film layers on chemical composition and silage quality class of sorghum bale silage. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 165-172.

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different bale density and the number of stretch film layers on chemical composition and quality of sorghum bale silage. In this research, Early Sumac variety of sorghum was used as the silage material, bale silage as the silage making technique and silage stretch film as the wrapping material. Research was arranged as 2×3 factorial following a completely randomized experiment design and four replications were carried out. Sorghum bales were carried out on two different densities (450 and 650 kg/m3 ) and were wrapped in three different numbers of stretch film layers (2, 3 and 4 layers). Sorghum bales were stored outside for 120 days and opened after the ensiling period and were subjected to physical evaluation and chemical analysis. According to the results of the physical evaluation, it was determined that all sorghum silages were of very good quality class. Bale density and the number of stretch film layer was determined to have an insignificant effect on the physical evaluation (P>0.05). According to the results of chemical analysis, increased bale density and the number of stretch film layers decreased pH values and increased dry matter content of silage. From the results, it was concluded that increasing bale density and the number of stretch film layers would have a positive effect on the quality of sorghum silage.

    Key words: Bale density, Bale silage, Number of layer, Sorghum, Stretch film.

    *Corresponding author: cyildiz@atauni.edu.tr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00018.X
    In Vitro Fermentation and Methane Production with Diets of Varying Roughage (Prosopis cineraria leaves) to Concentrate Ratio
      P. Meena, A. Uddin, M.K. Tripathi and V.K. Paswan*
      Department of Livestock Production Management, SKN College of Agriculture Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner-303 329, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Meena, P., Uddin, A., Tripathi, M.K. and Paswan, V.K. 2017. In vitro fermentation and methane production with diets of varying roughage (Prosopis cineraria leaves) to concentrate ratio. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 173-179.

    The experiment was conducted to study the effect of varying concentrate levels in diets with Prosopis cineraria dry leaves on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Three composite feed mixtures (CFM) were prepared using Prosopis cineraria (Khejri) dry leaves as roughage source and barley grain in ratio of 80:20 (D1 ), 60:40 (D2 ) and 40:60 (D3 ) respectively, along with 2% mineral mixture and 1% common salt. The in-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), metabolites and methane production were measured for 24 h fermentation. In-vitro experiment revealed that increasing concentrate levels improved (P<0.05) the ivdmd of diets, which ranged from 70.18 to 74.25% and remained highest in d3 . total gas (ml />g DDM) and methane (g/kg DDM) production as well as ME (MJ/ kg DM) production were increased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate in the diets. there was a non-significant decrease in the ph of fermentation medium on increasing concentrate levels in the diets. tca-ppt protein was reduced (p<0.05) whereas NH3 N, TVFA and protozoa population increased (P<0.05) by increasing concentrate levels in the diets. It is concluded that increasing level of concentrate improved total gas and methane production along with IVDMD. Methane production was lowest in diets having more Prosopis cineraria dry leaves because of high content of tannins in it, which inhibits the production of methane and reduced the population of protozoa.

    Key words: In vitro Fermentation, Methane Production, Prosopis cineraria.

    *Corresponding author: vkpaswan.vet@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00019.1
    Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids in Combination on Performance and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicken
      V.R. Ramigani, J.V. Ramana*, D. Srinivasa Rao, S. Shakila and J. Suresh
      Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati-517 502, AP, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Ramigani, V.R., Ramana, J.V., Rao, D.S., Shakila, S. and Suresh, J. 2017. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids in combination on performance and carcass traits of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 181-187.

    The present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the production performance and carcass traits of broilers fed with different organic acid combination supplemented diets. Basal pre-starter, starter and finisher broiler diets were formulated as per the nutrient requirements (ICAR, 2013). Six experimental diets, viz. T1 (Basal diet), T2 (Basal diet+antibiotic @ 50 g/100 kg), T3 (Basal diet+20:40:40 combination of citric, formic and propionic acids @ 1.5 g/100g), T4 (Basal diet+30:40:30 combination of citric, formic and propionic acids @ 1.0 g/100g), T5 (Basal diet+ 30:30:40 combination of citric, formic and propionic acids @ 1.0 g/100g), T6 (Basal diet+10:45:45 combination of citric, formic and propionic acids @ 1.5 g/100g) were prepared. Two hundred and seventy day old, straight run commercial broiler chicks were distributed randomly to six treatments with three replicates of fifteen birds each and fed with the experimental diets from 0 to 42 days of age. Body weight gains and feed efficiency were significantly (P<0.05) improved during all phases of the experiment. feed intake in organic acid supplemented groups (t3 to t6 ) was significantly (p<0.05) reduced during the pre-starter and starter phases. Organic acid supplementation revealed no significant (P>0.05) difference in the ready- to- cookyields among the groups, but significantly (P<0.05) increased giblet yields on % live weight basis. The organic acid combination of citric, formic and propionic at 20:40:40 combination could be safely incorporated at 1.5% level in broiler diets for better performance.

    Key words: Acid binding capacity, Buffering capacity, BW gain, Feed efficiency, Organic acids.

    *Corresponding author: jvenkataramana@rediffmail.com

  • 1. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00033.0
    Effects of Feeding Ficus polita Foliage-based Complete Rations with Varying Forage: concentrate Ratio on Performance and Ruminal Fermentation in Growing Goats
    O.A. Olafadehan*, A.A. Njidda, S.A. Okunade , M.K. Adewumi , K.J. Awosanmi, T.O. Ijanmi and A. Raymond
    2. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00034.2
    Comparative Study of Mustard, Soybean and Rice Bran Oil: Effects on Nutrient Utilization, Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites in Growing Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Heifers
    V. Kale, Sachin Kumar, N. Kewalramani, Veena Mani, Nitin Tyagi and A.K. Tyagi*
    3. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00035.4
    Effect of Plant Extract YGF251 on Growth Performance, Reproductive Performance and Insulin Like Growth Factor Secretion in Primiparous and Multiparous Sows
    S.D. Upadhaya, J.W. Park and I.H. Kim*
    4. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00036.6
    Landscape and Seasonal Effects on Crude Protein, Fibre and In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Common Grass Species in Semi-arid Communal Grazing Lands of South Africa
    A. Kwaza, S.T. Beyene*, V. Mlambo and K. Mopipi
    5. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00037.8
    Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Fish Oil on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Fatty Acid Profile and Sensory Attributes of Meat in Broiler Chickens
    A.K. Panda*, K. Sridhar, G. Lavanya, B. Prakash, S.V. Rama Rao and M.V.L.N. Raju
    6. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00039.1
    Comparative Efficacy of Nutritional and Hormonal Interventions on the Reproductive Performance of Cows
    Sujit Das*, C.R. Pradhan , S.K. Mishra , R.K. Swain , P.C. Mishra , G. Sahoo , K. Sethy and G.P. Mohanty
    7. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00040.8
    Effect of Foliage Supplementation to Heteropogon contortus Based Diets on Nutrients Digestibility, Gas and Metabolites Production in Sheep and Goat Inoculums
    Sultan Singh*, A. Gupta and B.B. Singh
    8. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00042.1
    Effect of Swine-based Probiotic on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Immune Status of Early-weaned Grower-Finisher Crossbred Pigs
    R. Dowarah, A.K. Verma, Neeta Agrawal and Putan Singh
    9. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00048.2
    Growth and Physiological Performance of Growing Rabbits Fed Diets with Multi Enzymes Extracts
    H. Gado, A.Z.M. Salem* and T.S.T. Seleem
    10. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00043.3
    Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Yucca schidigera Extract on the Performance and Litter Quality of Broilers in Winter Season
    S.P. Sahoo*, D. Kaur, A.P.S. Sethi, Chandrahas, A.L. Saini and M. Chandra
    11. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00045.7
    Comparative Nutritional Evaluation of Raw and Detoxified Karanj (Pongamia glabra) Cake by In vitro Gas Production Technique
    V.K. Paswan, Narayan Dutta*, A.K. Pattanaik and K. Sharma
    12. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00046.9
    Effect of Supplementing Streptococcus gallolyticus Strain TDGB 406 on Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Profile of Goats Fed on Oak Leaves
    Kaushalendra Kumar, L.C. Chaudhary*, N. Agarwal and D.N. Kamra
    13. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00047.0
    Methane Mitigation Potential of Tannins and their Impact on Digestibility of Nutrients In-vitro
    J.S. Hundal, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*
    14. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00041.X
    Ensiling Fruit Byproducts with Inoculum of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains
    Y. Uyeno1*, R. Konaka, M. Shirota and S. Kobayashi
    15. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00044.5
    Evaluation of Water and Feed Intake and Growth Performance of Goat (Capra hircus) at High Altitude
    Prabhat Kumar, V.K. Bharti*, S.E. Jadhav, Guru Charan, D. Gogoi and R.B. Srivastava
    16. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00038.X
    Insect Meal as a Source of Protein in Animal Diet
    M.F. Al-Qazzaz* and D.B. Ismail
       
      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00033.0 Effects of Feeding Ficus polita Foliage-based Complete Rations with Varying Forage: concentrate Ratio on Performance and Ruminal Fermentation in Growing Goats
      O.A. Olafadehan*, A.A. Njidda, S.A. Okunade , M.K. Adewumi , K.J. Awosanmi, T.O. Ijanmi and A. Raymond
      Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja, Abuja 23409, Nigeria
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Olafadehan, O.A., Njidda, A.A., Okunade, S.A., Adewumi, M.K., Awosanmi, K.J., Ijanmi, T.O. and Raymond, A. 2016. Effects of feeding Ficus polita foliage-based complete rations with varying forage:concentrate ratio on performance and ruminal fermentation in growing goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 373-382.

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of forage to concentrate ratio (F:C) on voluntary feed intake, total tract digestibility, N utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein supply and growth in goats in a 91-day experiment excluding the adjustment period. Twenty-one goats, with an initial similar body weight of 12.3±0.59 kg, were randomly assigned to one of three F:C ratio diets containing 70:30, 60:40 or 50:50 in a completely randomized design. Dry matter and nutrient intakes, apparent digestibility of fibre fractions, digestible crude protein (DCP) and digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME), ruminal total N, N retention, feed conversion ratio and average daily gain were not (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. Intakes of DCP, DOM, DE and ME, organic matter digested in the rumen, microbial protein supply, total volatile fatty acids, apparent digestibility of crude protein and organic matter, and N absorbed linearly increased (P<0.05) with decreasing f:c ratio. apparent dm digestibility, digestible dm, digestible dm intake, ruminal ph and nh3 -n had a positive linear increase (p<0.01) with increasing level of concentrate. The results indicate that tannin-containing Ficus polita forage can be included in complete diet of goats up to 700 g/kg DM without compromising the performance of the animals.

    Key words: Complete diet, Microbial protein, N utilization, Tannin-containing forage.

    *Corresponding author: oaolafadehan@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00034.2 Comparative Study of Mustard, Soybean and Rice Bran Oil: Effects on Nutrient Utilization, Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites in Growing Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Heifers
      V. Kale, Sachin Kumar, N. Kewalramani, Veena Mani, Nitin Tyagi and A.K. Tyagi*
      Rumen Biotechnology Lab, Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition ICAR-National dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kale, V., Kumar, S., Kewalramani, N., Mani, V., Tyagi, N. and Tyagi, A.K. 2016. Comparative study of mustard, soybean and rice bran oil: Effects on nutrient utilization, growth performance and blood metabolites in growing Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 383-392.

    To compare the effect of dietary supplementation of different vegetable oils on nutrient utilization, growth performance and blood metabolites, 15 Murrah buffalo heifers were randomly allotted into three groups (T1 , T2 and T3 ) of five in each on the basis of their average body weight and age. All the animals were given concentrate, green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios, respectively, as per Kearl (1982) feeding standard. In addition, mustard oil, soybean oil and rice bran oil @ 3.5% of concentrate mixture were supplemented in groups T1 , T2 and T3 respectively. Body weight in T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05) by 4.43 and 3.66% than that of t1 . average daily gain in t2 and t3 was higher (p<0.05) by 10.39 and 9.19% than that of T1 . The digestibilities of the nutrients and blood metabolites remained uninfluenced (P>0.05) among all the groups. Thus it may be concluded that the addition of soybean and rice bran oil @ 3.5% in concentrate mixture improves growth performance of the buffalo heifers as compared to mustard oil. In addition to this, no adverse affect was reported on nutrient utilization and the blood metabolites profile among all the groups in buffalo heifers.

    Key words: Blood metabolites, Growth, Murrah buffalo heifers, Nutrient utilization, Vegetable oils.

    *Corresponding author: amrishtyagi1963@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00035.4 Effect of Plant Extract YGF251 on Growth Performance, Reproductive Performance and Insulin Like Growth Factor Secretion in Primiparous and Multiparous Sows
      S.D. Upadhaya, J.W. Park and I.H. Kim*
      Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University Anseodong, Cheonan, Choongnam 330-714 South Korea
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Upadhaya, S.D., Park, J.W. and Kim, I.H. 2016. Effect of plant extract YGF251 on growth performance, reproductive performance and insulin like growth factor secretion in primiparous and multiparous sows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 393-402.

    Two experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate the effects of dietary plant extract supplement (YGF251) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1) secretion and reproductive performance in sows. A total of 15 primiparous sows [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] and their litters were used in Exp. 1, and 15 third-parity sows [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] and their litters were used in Exp. 2. Sows were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments with 5 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) CON (basal diet), 2) PE1 (CON + plant extracts 0.5g/kg diet) and 3) PE2 (CON + plant extracts 1g/kg diet). In Exp. 1, the sows fed PE diet showed linear increase in the dry matter (P=0.03) and energy content (P=0.04) in colostrum compared with CON. Dry matter content in the milk of sows fed PE diets was also linearly increased (P=0.04) and energy content tended to increase (P=0.06) with the increase in the level of supplemented plant extract. Sows fed PE supplemented diet linearly increased IGF-1 concentration (P=0.04) with the increase in the dosage of supplemented plant extract. In Exp. 2, the body weight loss of third-parity sows was decreased linearly (P=0.04) at weaning with PE2 treatment showing lower body weight loss. Multiparous sows fed PE diet showed linear decrease (P=0.02) in back fat thickness loss. Sows fed PE diet showed linear increase in dry matter (P= 0.03) and energy content (P= 0.02) in the colostrum and there was a tendency of increase in fat (P=0.08) and energy content (P=0.06) in milk. In conclusion, plant extracts supplementation partially had positive effects in sows serum IGF-1, dry matter and energy content in colostrum in both first and third parity sows.

    Key words: Insulin like growth factor 1, Litters, Plant extract, Parity, Sows.

    *Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00036.6 Landscape and Seasonal Effects on Crude Protein, Fibre and In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Common Grass Species in Semi-arid Communal Grazing Lands of South Africa
      A. Kwaza, S.T. Beyene*, V. Mlambo1 and K. Mopipi
      Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kwaza, A., Beyene, S.T., Mlambo, V. and Mopipi, K. 2016. Landscape and seasonal effects on crude protein, fibre and in vitro fermentation characteristics of common grass species in semi-arid communal grazing lands of South Africa. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 403-416.

    This study investigated the influence of season and landscape on the nutritive value of common grass species growing in two (Highland and Lowland) communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Grass samples were harvested from three landscape gradients (upland, sloping and bottomland) over four seasons (summer, autumn, winter and spring) for crude protein (CP) and fibre contents determination, and over two seasons (autumn and winter) for in vitro ruminal fermentation analysis. In the Highland, Cynodon dactylon had significantly the highest CP content (6.5%), while Eragrostis plana (3.9%) and Sporobolus africanus (4.0%) had the least. Grasses harvested in the winter season had the least CP, while those harvested in autumn and summer had the highest. In the Lowland, CP content in winterharvested grass ranged from 2.7% (S. africanus)- 4.8% (C. dactylon). Of the three main factors, only season had a significant effect on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters in both study areas. Ruminal degradability was lower in winter-harvested compared to autumn-harvested grasses. It was concluded that generally seasonal variation imposed greater influence on nutritive value of grass herbage than spatial variation. Crude protein content of grass herbage in both communal grazing areas was likely to be inadequate for maintenance of ruminant animals, but the severity depends mainly on season. This urges the need for protein supplementation in order to improve animal productivity.

    Key words: Highland, Lowland, Natural pastures, Nutritive value, Partition factor, Rumen degradability

    *Corresponding author: teferabeyenesolomon@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00037.8 Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Fish Oil on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Fatty Acid Profile and Sensory Attributes of Meat in Broiler Chickens
      A.K. Panda*, K. Sridhar, G. Lavanya, B. Prakash, S.V. Rama Rao and M.V.L.N. Raju
      ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Panda, A.K., Sridhar, K., Lavanya, G., Prakash, B., Rama Rao, S.V. and Raju, M.V.L.N. 2016. Effect of dietary incorporation of fish oil on performance, carcass characteristics, meat fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 417-425.

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) rich fish oil (FO) supplementation to broiler chicks during finisher (21-42 days) phase on performance, carcass characteristics, meat fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat in broiler chickens. A total of 240, one-day-old Krishibro broiler chicks were reared under uniform managemental conditions in battery brooder during starter (1-21 days) phase. At 21 days of age, the broiler chicks were individually weighed and distributed into 40 replicates with 6 birds per replicate. Basal finisher (3000 kcal ME/kg and 20% CP) diet (control) was prepared using sunflower oil (SFO) at 3% level. Subsequently 3 test diets were prepared to contain 2% SFO and 1% fish oil (FO), 1% SFO and 2% FO or 3% FO. Fish oil supplementation at either 2 or 3% in the diets significantly improved the body weight gain in broiler chickens. The relative carcass parameters were not affected due to dietary incorporation of FO in the diet. However, abdominal fat contents were significantly reduced by incorporating 2 or 3% FO in the diet. The saturated fatty acid content decreased and poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content increased linearly in breast and thigh meat by replacement of SFO with FO at graded levels. The dietary replacement of SFO with FO completely resulted in an increase in the accumulation of n-3 long chain PUFA particularly LNA, EPA and DHA in the muscle tissues. The highest concentration of n-3 FA and lowest concentration of n-6 FA in breast and thigh meat was observed in the diet where LO was completely replaced with FO in the diet. The ratio of n6 to n-3 FA also decreased linearly with increasing the levels of FO in the diet. The sensory attributes in the cooked meat as judged by the sensory panel were not adversely affected by dietary incorporation of fish oil (upto 3%) in the diet of broiler chickens. It is concluded that dietary incorporation of FO at 3% level during finisher phase enriched the meat with n-3 FA without affecting the sensory attributes of meat; in addition, it improved the bird’s performance.

    Key words: Broiler chickens, Carcass characteristics, Fish oil, Growth, Meat fatty acid profile.

    *Corresponding author: akpanda59@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00039.1 Comparative Efficacy of Nutritional and Hormonal Interventions on the Reproductive Performance of Cows
      Sujit Das*, C.R. Pradhan , S.K. Mishra , R.K. Swain , P.C. Mishra , G. Sahoo , K. Sethy and G.P. Mohanty
      College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Das, S., Pradhan, C.R., Mishra, S.K., Swain, R.K., Mishra, P.C., Sahoo, G., Sethy, K. and Mohanty, G.P. 2016. Comparative study on nutritional and hormonal interventions on the reproductive performance of cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 427-438.

    One hundred cows having reproductive disorders were randomly distributed in 5 treatment groups. The five treatment groups were: group I: control group, group II: group I+ area specific mineral mixture (ASMM) @ 50 g/day/animal, group III: group I+ by-pass fats supplementation @ 100 g/day/animal, group IV: group I + treatment with prostaglandins (PGF2α) and GnRH (Doublesync), Group V: Group I+ treatment with prostaglandins (PGF2α), GnRH and Estradiol benzoate (Estra-Doublesync). During survey, feed and fodder samples were collected for assessing nutrient composition. Also nutrient availability to the cows was assessed from the feeding practices followed by the farmers. Blood biochemical and mineral status of the animals were determined at 0 day and 60th day of experimental period. The conception rate of the animals was determined at the end of the experiment. The survey on nutrient availability revealed that 35-60% animals were getting lower TDN than requirement. In comparison to TDN, the percentages of animal observed to be deficient in DCP was lower (30-45%). The serum mineral status revealed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the treated groups at 0 day of experiment. Similarly, at 60 day of experiment, except phosphorus (P), no significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in serum mineral levels between the treated groups. The serum P level of group II was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of all other treated groups. no significant (p> 0.05) difference was observed in serum biochemical levels between the treated groups at 0 day and 60th day of experimental period. Highest pregnancy percentage of the experimental cows was recorded in group V (60%) followed by group IV (45%). The pregnancy percentages of group I, II and III were 10, 35 and 20, respectively. From this experiment, it may be concluded that nutritional supplementation (ASMM or bypass fat) improved the conception rate of crossbred cow by 20-35% over unsupplemented cows while the hormonal protocol (either double synch or estra double synch) improved the conception rate of crossbred cows by 45-60%.

    Key words: Area specific mineral mixture, Bypass fat, Crossbred cows, Hormone, Pregnancy.

    *Corresponding author: sujitdas.vet@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00040.8 Effect of Foliage Supplementation to Heteropogon contortus Based Diets on Nutrients Digestibility, Gas and Metabolites Production in Sheep and Goat Inoculums
      Sultan Singh*, A. Gupta and B.B. Singh
      Plant Animal Relationship Division Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284 003, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Singh, S., Gupta, A. and Singh, B.B. 2016. Effect of foliage supplementation to Heteropogon contortus based diets on nutrients digestibility, gas and metabolites production in sheep and goat inoculums. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 439-450.

    In present study 20 diets were formulated using Heteropogon contortus (HC) grass with 5 tree leaves (Hardwickia binata-HB, Albizia lebbek-AL, Grewia optiva-GO, Anogeissus pendulla-AP and Leucaena leucocephala-LL) and 5 shrubs (Dichrostachys cineria-DC, Securengia virosa-SV, Zizyphus xylophyrusZX, Helictris isora-HI and Acacia catechu-AC) in 75:25 and 50:50 ratios, which were evaluated for their nutritional composition and in vitro nutrients digestibility, fermentation and gas production in sheep and goat rumen inoculums to select grass: tree leaves/shrubs species and their ratio for silipastoral system of small ruminants. Diets differed significantly (P<0.05) in cp, ndf, adf, cellulose and lignin contents. diets with 50:50 and 75:25 ratios of hc grass with foliage also differed significantly (p<0.05) in CP and fiber contents. Nutrients degradability differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst diets in rumen inoculums of both sheep and goats and were similar between HC-foliage diets in 50:50 and 75:25 ratios. Sheep and goats had similar nutrients degradability, while sheep and goats tended to degrade more nutrients at 75:25 than 50:50 ratios, respectively. Diets degradability values for DM, CP, NDF and ADF were 62.73, 57.90, 47.22 and 42.75 in sheep and 63.22, 62.06, 49.22 and 42.77% in goats, respectively. Diets differed significantly (P<0.05) for in vitro TVFA, total N and ammonia N concentration in rumen inoculum of sheep and goats. Total-N and ammonia-N was higher (P<0.05) from diets with 50:50 ratio of HC grassfoliage diets than 75:25 ratio. Mean TVFA, total-N and ammonia-N contents were 62.38, 40.20 and 9.31 in sheep and 63.40 meq/l, 41.72 mg/100 ml and 9.45 mg/100 ml in goat’s rumen liquor. Diets differed significantly (P<0.05) in IVDMD, gas production and partition factor in both species. Gas production tended to be more in sheep (156.73) than goats inoculums (142.76 ml/g). Results showed that HC:LL and HC:GO diets are superior in nutrients content, digestibility and metabolites production, while sheep and goat exhibited relatively higher nutrients utilization and more total volatile fatty acid production at 75:25 and 50:50 ratios of HC-tree foliage diets, respectively.

    Key words: Foliage, Gas production, Metabolites, Nutrients degradation, Sheep and goat inoculums

    *Corresponding author: singh.sultan@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00042.1 Effect of Swine-based Probiotic on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Immune Status of Early-weaned Grower-Finisher Crossbred Pigs
      R. Dowarah, A.K. Verma, Neeta Agrawal and Putan Singh
      Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Dowarah, R., Verma, A.K., Agrawal, N. and Singh, P. 2016. Effect of swine-based probiotic on growth performance, nutrient utilization and immune status of early-weaned grower-finisher crossbred pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 451-461.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Pediococcus acidilactici FT28 (isolated from the faeces of piglet in the author’s laboratory) and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-15 (obtained from the dairy culture collection) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and immune status of early weaned grower-finisher pigs. Thirty six early weaned (28 days of age) piglets were allotted to three dietary treatments in complete randomized design. Dietary treatments included; T0 (control-basal diet), T1 (basal diet + L. acidophilus NCDC-15) and T2 (basal diet + Pediococcus acidilactici FT28). The probiotics were offered in the form of fermented feed at the rate of 200 g/pig/day. Two digestion trials were conducted each at grower (50 kg BW) and finisher (80 kg BW) phase. The net weight gain, average daily gain, DM intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotics supplemented groups as compared to control for entire experimental period (180 days). during grower phase, the digestibility of dry matter (dm), crude protein (cp) and ether extract (ee) was higher (p<0.05), whereas, during finisher phase, digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF) was also higher in pigs fed P. acidilactici FT28 as compared to control. The intake of GE (kcal/d), DE and ME was also higher (P<0.05) in P. acidilactici FT28 fed animals but digestibility of GE was not affected by any of the probiotics. The cell-mediated and humoral immune response was significantly higher (P<0.001) in probiotics fed animals, however, swine based probiotic had better (P<0.001) response as compared to dairy based probiotic. The results indicated that both the probiotics tested were effective in improving the growth performance and immunity status of piglets but, P. acidilactici FT28 was superior to L. acidophilus NCDC-15 in terms of nutrients utilization and immune status in grower-finisher pigs.

    Key words: Grower-finisher, Immunity, Performance, Swine origin probiotic.

    *Corresponding author: vermaak62@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00048.2 Growth and Physiological Performance of Growing Rabbits Fed Diets with Multi Enzymes Extracts
      H. Gado, A.Z.M. Salem* and T.S.T. Seleem
      Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, México
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Gado, H., Salem, A.Z.M. and Seleem, T.S.T. 2016. Growth and physiological performance of growing rabbits fed diets with multi enzymes extracts. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 463-474.

    A total number of three hundred and twelve Hy-Plus rabbits were used to evaluate the performance as affected by different levels of enzymes extracts (EE) of ZADO® in diets. Animals were divided into four experimental groups. The first group was kept untreated and fed a commercial diet (0 kg enzymes extracts (EE0), while the 2nd; 3rd and 4th groups were fed the same diet but supplemented with 1 (EE1), 3 (EE3) and 5 (EE5) kg of enzymes extracts/ton, respectively. Increased weekly gains (P≤0.05) were observed with increasing EE in the diets. A higher (P≤0.05) body weight, daily feed intake, and daily weight gain were with all groups of EE specially that of 5 kg. The best feed conversion ratio expressed as feed intake/ weight gain were observed with EE groups. Carcass weight, dressing weight were increased (P≤0.05) with increasing level of EE addition. Higher (P≤0.05) concentrations of blood parameters with lower (P≤0.05) blood NH3 , urea N, GOT and GPT were observed with increasing levels EE in the diet. It can be concluded that supplementation of EE to rabbit diets enhanced growth performance, carcass traits and decreased mortality rate, during growing period, and enhanced immunity and liver and kidney functions.

    Key words: Blood, Enzyme, Carcass, Growth, Rabbits

    *Corresponding author: asalem70@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00043.3 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Yucca schidigera Extract on the Performance and Litter Quality of Broilers in Winter Season
      S.P. Sahoo*, D. Kaur, A.P.S. Sethi, Chandrahas, A.L. Saini and M. Chandra
      Department of Livestock Production Management, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Sahoo, S.P., Kaur, D., Sethi, A.P.S., Chandrahas, Saini, A.L. and Chandra, M. 2016. Effect of dietary supplementation of Yucca schidigera extract on the performance and litter quality of broilers in winter season. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 475-484.

    The present experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary supplementation of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) on growth, litter quality, the general health and hygiene in broiler rearing over a six-week period. Day-old broiler chicks (n=120) of equal sex ratio were randomly divided into two dietary groups (YSE and Control); each treatment had three replications of 20 chicks each. The rearing conditions were similar for both the groups, and were as per the standard practices in vogue. Data pertaining to growth of birds, pathogen load of litter and general health and sanitation outlook was recorded. The average BW at 6th week of the experiment was significantly (P<0.05) higher in yucca group (1995 g) than the control group (1822 g) with lesser feed intake in yucca group than control group, which ultimately proves better feed conversion rate, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio in broiler production. the total bacterial count was reduced significantly (p<0.05) due to supplementation of YSE. Foot pad and breast blister score was almost nil in both the group. Intensive cake formation of litter in control group was more than that of treatment group. Dietary manipulation with Yucca improved the desirable traits like weight gain and feed efficiency. Litter quality was improved due to better micro-climatic conditions. Hence, it is concluded that Yucca extract could be safely used at a level of 125 mg per kg BW without any adverse effect on growth and health of broilers.

    Key words: Broiler, Dietary supplementation, Litter quality, Yucca schidigera.

    *Corresponding author: drsaradasahoo@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00045.7 Comparative Nutritional Evaluation of Raw and Detoxified Karanj (Pongamia glabra) Cake by In vitro Gas Production Technique
      V.K. Paswan, Narayan Dutta*, A.K. Pattanaik and K. Sharma
      Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Paswan, V.K., Dutta, N., Pattanaik, A.K. and Sharma, K. 2016. Comparative nutritional evaluation of raw and detoxified karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake by in vitro gas production technique. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 485-494.

    Karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake is an important proteinaceous feeding resource for livestock available as by-product from biodiesel industry. However, its use in livestock feeding is restricted due to the presence of toxic principles. A suitable method of detoxification of karanj cake was evolved which resulted into substantial removal of major toxins viz., karanjin, pongamol and trypsin inhibitors while preserving its nutrients. Further, both raw and detoxified karanj cake were subjected to in vitro study by incorporation at 0 (control), 12.5, 25.0, 37.5, 50.0, 62.5, 75.0, 87.5 and 100 percent levels by replacing soybean meal in the concentrate mixtures (22% CP) on protein equivalent basis. Concentrate mixtures and fine ground wheat straw (1:1 on weight basis) was used as substrate for in vitro study. The substrate degradation in terms of gas volume produced in 24 h (ml/200 mg), truly degradable organic matter in rumen (TDOMR; mg/200 mg), TDOMR%, partitioning factor, microbial biomass production (MBP; mg/200 mg) and efficiency of microbial biomass production (MBP/100 mg TDOMR) were found to be comparable (P>0.05) for both raw and detoxified karanj cake. It may be concluded that complete replacement of soybean meal with either raw or detoxified karanj cake in vitro did not exert any adverse effect on substrate degradation and efficiency of microbial biomass production.

    Key words: Detoxification, In vitro gas production, Karanj, Pongamia

    *Corresponding author: dutta65@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00046.9 Effect of Supplementing Streptococcus gallolyticus Strain TDGB 406 on Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Profile of Goats Fed on Oak Leaves
      Kaushalendra Kumar, L.C. Chaudhary*, N. Agarwal and D.N. Kamra
      Rumen Microbiology Laboratory, Animal Nutrition Division ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kumar, K., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2016. Effect of supplementing Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406 on rumen fermentation and microbial profile of goats fed on oak leaves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 495-503.

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplementation of tannin degrading bacteria (Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406) on rumen fermentation and microbial profile of goats fed on oak (Quercus semicarpifolia) leaves. Three adult male goats (average body weight 27.5±1.0 kg) fitted with permanent fistula were distributed into three groups (switch over design). The animals of group 1 served as control (C) while animals of group T1 and T2 were given autoclaved and live culture of isolate TDGB 406 (106 cells/ml), respectively @ 5 ml/kg live weight. The animals were fed measured quantity of dry oak leaves as the main roughage source and ad libitum maize hay along with fixed quantity of concentrate mixture. The feeding of live culture of isolate TDGB 406 as probiotic did not show any effect on the rumen fermentation pattern viz. pH, total nitrogen, TCA ppt-N, NPN, lactic acid, total volatile fatty acids production and the activities of carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, protease and tannase. However, the production of NH3 -N was higher (P<0.05) in live culture fed animals as compared to control group. the population of rumen protozoa, total bacteria and fungi were similar in all the three groups, whereas, tannin degrading bacteria population was higher in t2 where the live culture of tdgb 406 was fed. the results of the study indicated that tdgb 406 can modify rumen microbial eco-system when used as probiotic in goats without disturbing the rumen environment.

    Key words: Goats, Microbial profile, Quercus semicarpifolia, Rumen fermentation, Tannin degrading bacteria.

    *Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00047.0 Methane Mitigation Potential of Tannins and their Impact on Digestibility of Nutrients In-vitro
      J.S. Hundal, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*
      Department of Animal Nutrition, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana- 141 004, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Hundal, J.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2016. Methane mitigation potential of tannins and their impact on digestibility of nutrients in-vitro. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 505-513.

    The study was taken up to assess the effect of the pure tannins viz. catechin hydrate, gallic acid, tannin acid and ellagic acid supplemented individually at 1 to 5% levels of the substrate DM (wheat straw) on the in vitro methane production and fiber degradation in a 4x7 factorial design. Irrespective of the type of tannin, the net gas production (NGP) in positive control and tannin supplemented groups (1-5% level) was higher (P<0.01) than normal control. the ngp and partitioning factor (pf) of positive control and tannin supplemented groups up to 4% level were similar, but depressed (p<0.01) at 5% level. The digestibility of NDF and true OM was depressed (P<0.01) at all the levels of tannin supplementation. However, ME availability was not affected by tannin supplementation. The effect of tannins, irrespective of its level revealed that the NGP was depressed (P<0.01), while digestibility of nutrients and ME availability were depressed numerically (P>0.05) in the ellagic acid supplemented group, as compared to other tannins supplemented groups. Irrespective of type of tannins, the TVFAs, acetate and A:P ratio were higher (P<0.01) in positive control than normal control. The TVFAs, acetate and propionate production in tannin supplemented groups was lowest (P<0.01) at 1% level as compared to positive control. Irrespective of the level of tannins, the TVFAs, acetate and propionate production was higher (P<0.01), while A:P ratio was lowest (P<0.01) from catechin hydrate as compared to other tannin supplemented groups. Beyond 2% there was significant depression (P<0.01) in methane production as compared to positive control. Between 3 and 4% levels, there was no difference, but again at 5% there was depression (P<0.01) in methane production. Irrespective of level of tannins, methane production was lowest (P<0.01) in the ellagic acid supplemented group, while the highest (P<0.01) was observed in catechin hydrate supplemented group. It was concluded that ellagic acid supplemented at 3% of substrate mitigated the methane production, depressed the digestibility and VFA production, but without affecting ME availability.

    Key words: In-vitro digestibility, Methane, Volatile fatty acids, Wheat straw

    *Corresponding author: bakshimps@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00041.X Ensiling Fruit Byproducts with Inoculum of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains
      Y. Uyeno*, R. Konaka, M. Shirota and S. Kobayashi
      Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University Minamiminowa, Nagano 399-4598, Japan
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Uyeno, Y., Konaka, R., Shirota, M. and Kobayashi, S. 2016. Ensiling fruit byproducts with inoculum of lactic acid bacteria strains. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 515-519.

    We conducted laboratory-scale ensiling experiments to evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculant for making fruit byproduct silage with the aim of long-term storage stability. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria were applied as inoculants for apple pomace, grape pomace, and persimmon skin silage. After four weeks of anaerobic fermentation, Lactobacillus buchneri exhibited a prominent effect in decreasing yeast count in apple pomace silage and persimmon skin silage, whereas Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis also contributed to increased lactic acid production compared to control silage. Aerobic stability tests of silage samples, which were anaerobically ensiled for six weeks, indicated that the addition of L. buchneri or L. plantarum suppressed the temperature increase of the silage. Our results suggest that inclusion of selected lactic acid bacteria species may be a practical means of producing high quality fruit byproduct silage.

    Key words: Aerobic stability, Ensiling, Fruit byproducts, Lactic acid bacteria

    *Corresponding author: ytkuyeno@shinshu-u.ac.jp

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00044.5 Evaluation of Water and Feed Intake and Growth Performance of Goat (Capra hircus) at High Altitude
      Prabhat Kumar, V.K. Bharti*, S.E. Jadhav, Guru Charan, D. Gogoi and R.B. Srivastava
      Division of Animal Science, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR), DRDO, Ministry of Defence, C/o 56 APO, Leh-194 101, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kumar, P., Bharti, V.K., Jadhav, S.E., Charan, G., Gogoi, D. and Srivastava, R.B. 2016. Evaluation of water and feed intake and growth performance of goat (Capra hircus) at high altitude. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 521-526.

    At high altitude, due to extreme climatic conditions, high altitude (HA) stress coupled with poor nutritional status adversely affects the animal’s health and productivity. These poor health and low productivity may be due to poor feed and water intake that affect animal metabolism and thereafter their animal’s performance. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to know daily water and feed intake, and growth performance of native and exotic goat of plain areas at high altitude (Leh-Ladakh; 11500 ft above from mean sea level) under semi-intensive rearing system. For this, eight adult female of each breed viz. Sirohi, Black Bengal (exotic breed from plain areas), and Changthangi goat (native breed) were selected from newly introduced flocks of animals. All the animals were observed for weekly water and feed intake and fortnightly gain in body weight up to eight weeks period. Result indicated significantly (P<0.05) higher water and feed intake and body weight gain during the entire period of experiment in changthangi goat as compared to sirohi and black bengal goats. there was no difference in water intake per kilogram feed intake among the breeds. similarly, there were no significant change in daily and weekly water and feed intake between sirohi and black bengal goats. whereas, significantly (p<0.05) higher total weight gain was recorded in Sirohi as compared to Black Bengal goats during the entire experimental period and at fortnightly interval. Interestingly, there was no significant change in daily gain in body weight among the breeds. These findings indicate the adverse effect of high altitude stress on water and feed intake and growth performance of exotic goat breeds at high altitude. This study will help in farm management (feeding/ watering) of exotic goats reared at high altitude and ration/feed formulation for optimum productivity.

    Key words: Black Bengal, Changthangi, Feed intake, Growth, High altitude, Sirohi, Water intake.

    *Corresponding author: vijaykbharti@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00038.X Insect Meal as a Source of Protein in Animal Diet
      M.F. Al-Qazzaz* and D.B. Ismail
      Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture University Selangor, 43400, Malaysia
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Al-Qazzaz, M.F. and Ismail, D.B. 2016. Insect meal as a source of protein in animal diet. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 527-547.

    The increasing, worldwide demand for fishmeal due to the development and expansion of the poultry industry raises the market price of fishmeal. Insects can be a perfect alternative as a source of protein in poultry diets due to the high percentage of protein (55-70%) they contain, along with a highquality profile of amino acids. In addition, insects greatly improve chicken meat quality and decrease the cost of production. However, the use of insects as a source of protein in animal diets is still prohibited due to different feed safety and quality laws. Insect protein is only allowed in fish or shellfish feed in Europe; however, the purified fat extracted from larvae is allowed to be used in animal diets. In conclusion, insects have proven to be a sustainable source of protein, are of an attractive quantity and quality, and have acceptable nutritive properties. The use of insects as a potential protein-rich feed ingredient in diets is practical and creates new perspectives in mono-gastric animal feeding.

    Key words: Insect meal, Nutrition, Poultry, Protein.

    *Corresponding author: mohfa77@hotmail.com

  • 1. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00017.2
    Impact of Feed Processing Technology on Nutritional Value of Pigs Feed: A Review
    J.S. Kim, S.L. Ingale, S.K. Baidoo and B.J. Chae*
    2. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00018.4
    Effect of Varying the Crop Residue, Cultivar and Physical form on Intake and Nutrient Utilization in Deccani Sheep Fed Complete Diets
    A.A. Khan, M. Sai, Butcha Rao, D. Ravi, K.V.S.V. Prasad, S. Anandan, Y. Ramana Reddy* and M. Blumme
    3. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00019.6
    Mineral Concentration and Standing Crop Yield Dynamics of Forages in Semi-arid Communal Grazing Lands of South Africa: Effect of Landscape and Season
    K. Ayanda, S.T. Beyene*, V. Mlambo and K. Mopipi
    4. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00020.2
    In vitro Evaluation of Plant Derived Dietary Fibers as Prebiotic for Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca)
    S.K. Pradhan, N. Dutta, S.S. Kullu, M. Saini, A.K. Pattanaik, A.K. Sharma and A. Das*
    5. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00021.4
    Milk Production, Methane Emission, Metabolic Profile and Drinking Water Use Efficiency of Lactating Animals Fed Balanced Rations
    P.L. Sherasia*, M.R. Garg, B.T. Phondba, S.A. Hossain and B.P. Patel
    6. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00022.6
    Temporal Changes in the Hindgut Health Markers of Labrador Dogs in Response to a Canine-origin Probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii
    Sachin Kumar, A.K. Pattanaik*, Tony Jose, Shalini Sharma and S.E. Jadhav
    7. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00023.8
    Faecal Matter as Inoculum for In Vitro Gas Production Technique
    C.S. Pandian*, T.J. Reddy , K. Sivaiah , M. Blummel and Y.R. Reddy
    8. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00024.X
    Evaluation of Carvacrol in Ameliorating Aflatoxin induced Changes with Reference to Growth and Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chickens
    M. Sridhar*, V. Thammaiah and R.U. Suganthi
    9. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00025.1
    Source of Carbohydrates from Different Grains on Rumen Microbial Protein and Milk Production in Native Dairy Cows
    A.P. Singh and B. Srinivas*
    10. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00026.3
    Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Haemato-biochemical Profile in Ven-cobb Broiler Chicken as Influenced by Dietary Supplementation of Crude Soy Lecithin
    Meenu Dubey*, S.P. Tiwari, M.K. Gendley and Raina Doneria
    11. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00027.5
    Replacement of Concentrate Mixture with Dried Azolla on Milk Yield and Quality in Barbari Does
    Ravindra Kumar*, P. Tripathi, U.B. Chaudhary, R.B. Sharma and M.K. Tripathi
    12. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00028.7
    Evaluation of Acacia nilotica Seeds for Protein and Carbohydrate Fractions, Gas Production, Energy Value and Mineral Contents from Diverse Locations in India
    Sultan Singh*, S.P. Ahlawat, U.Y. Anele and R.B. Kumar
    13. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00029.9
    Acidulated Sunflower Soapstock as an Energy Source in the Diet of Broiler Chickens
    A.K. Panda*, K. Sridhar1, B. Prakash, S.V. Rama Rao and M.V.L.N. Raju
    14. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00030.5
    Growth Performance, Hemato-biochemical Profile and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed a Diet Supplemented with a Natural Blend of Herbs
    V.B. Singh, V.K. Singh*, D. Tewari, S. Gautam and D. Dwivedi
    15. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00031.7
    Evaluation of Live Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 and Curd as Probiotic on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Early Weaned Crossbred (Landrace x Desi) Piglets
    Kalpana Dhruw, A.K. Verma*, Neeta Agarwal, B.H.M. Patel and P. Singh
    16. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00032.9
    Methane Production Potential of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes In Vitro
    J.S. Lamba, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*
       
      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00017.2 Impact of Feed Processing Technology on Nutritional Value of Pigs Feed: A Review
      J.S. Kim, S.L. Ingale, S.K. Baidoo and B.J. Chae*
      Southern Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, Waseca, MN 56093, USA
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kim, J.S., Ingale, S.L., Baidoo, S.K. and Chae, B.J. 2016. Impact of feed processing technology on nutritional value of pigs feed: A review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 181-196.

    Feed industries are seeking new ways to cope with increased raw material costs, and one approach is application of feed processing technology for physical and chemical changes of the feed ingredients and to improve the nutrient quality, stability and hygiene. During last few decades, feed processing has evolved from simple “grind and mix” to more advanced thermal processes such as pelleting, expanding, and extruding which involves mechanical and thermal processing of feed ingredients. Feed processing results in physical and chemical changes of the feed ingredients such as particle size and molecular structure of feed components, which may increase or decrease the nutritional value of the feed ingredients. Thermal processing generally improves starch gelatinization and utilization, protein denaturation, fiber solubalization and improves the nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs. However, processing at high temperature and longer duration also have negative impacts such as Maillard reactions, oxidation of lipids, loss of vitamins and supplemented feed additives, which results into reduced nutritive quality of processed feeds. Therefore, feed miller should consider the interaction between processing and animal nutrition prior to creating formal recommendations for processing parameters. Present review highlights the most commonly used feed processing technology in modern feed industry and its impact on nutritional quality of swine feed.

    Key words: Feed processing, Pig feed, Profermance, Technology.

    *Corresponding author: bjchae@kangwon.ac.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00018.4 Effect of Varying the Crop Residue, Cultivar and Physical form on Intake and Nutrient Utilization in Deccani Sheep Fed Complete Diets
      A.A. Khan, M. Sai, Butcha Rao, D. Ravi, K.V.S.V. Prasad, S. Anandan, Y. Ramana Reddy* and M. Blumme
      International Livestock Research Institute, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru-502 324, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Khan, A.A., Sai, M., Rao, B., Ravi, D., Prasad, K.V.S.V., Anandan, S., Reddy, Y.R. and Blummel, M. 2016. Effect of varying the crop residue, cultivar and physical form on intake and nutrient utilization in Deccani sheep fed complete diets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 197-208.

    Four crop residue based complete diets (60R:40C) with Andhra hybrid and Telangana sorghum stover, paddy straw and sweet sorghum bagasse with leaf residue (SSBLR) as sole roughage were formulated and processed into either mash or block form to study the effect of crop residue, cultivar and physical form on intake, nutrient utilization and N balance in growing Deccani ram lambs through metabolism trial. Fifty six Deccani ram lambs were randomly divided into eight groups of seven each and offered either block or mash form of the four crop residue based diets for a period of 25 d. DMI (g/d, g/kg BW or g/kg W0.75) of complete diet was not influenced by the type of crop residue or cultivar. Physical form of the diet had significant influence on DMI being higher (20-29%) in lambs fed mash than block diets irrespective of crop residue and cultivar. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP and cell wall constituents (NDF and ADF) was influenced by the type of crop residue and cultivar but physical form (mash vs. block) of the diet had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility except CP. Intake of OM, DOM, CP (g/d) and ME (MJ/d) was significantly higher in sheep fed mash form of diets than block form irrespective of cultivar and crop residue in the diet. Type of crop residue has no influence on nutrient intake except DOMI but cultivar in the complete diet had influence on nutrient intake either significantly (DOM, CP; P<0.05) or non-significantly (om, me) being higher in andhra hybrid sorghum stover than telangana stover based diet. n balance was influenced by the type of crop residue, cultivar and physical form of the diet. n balance was significantly (p<0.05) higher in mash than block, Andhra hybrid than Telangana cultivar and SSBLR and sorghum stover based diets than those fed paddy straw based diets. The results of the present study revealed that type and cultivar (quality) of crop residue and physical form of the diet had influence either significantly or non-significantly on intake, nutrient utilization and N balance in growing Deccani sheep fed complete diets.

    Key words: Crop residues, Cultivar, Physical form, Nutrient utilization, Sheep

    *Corresponding author: r.ramana@cgiar.org

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00019.6 Mineral Concentration and Standing Crop Yield Dynamics of Forages in Semi-arid Communal Grazing Lands of South Africa: Effect of Landscape and Season
      K. Ayanda, S.T. Beyene*, V. Mlambo1 and K. Mopipi
      Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Ayanda, K., Beyene, S.T., Mlambo, V. and Mopipi, K. 2016. Mineral concentration and standing crop yield dynamics of forages in semi-arid communal grazing lands of South Africa: Effect of landscape and season. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 209-226.

    Semi-arid African rangelands are characterized by heterogeneous topography and distribution of grazing forages. In these ecosystems, grasses are the main sources of livestock feed with few species contributing to the bulk of the nutrient intake. Forage yield and elements availability play a significant role in determining the adequacy of nutrients intake and fodder flow plan, but limited information is available on their dynamics for the semi-arid South African communal rangelands. There is also little data on factors influencing concentrations of forage minerals throughout the year. We investigated the standing crop yield (DM) and element concentrations of major forages and evaluated their spatial and temporal variations. We conducted the study in two semi-arid (Highland and Lowland) communal rangelands in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Herbages for major forage species were harvested from three landscape positions (upland, slopping and bottomland) over four seasons (summer, autumn, winter and spring) in 2012/2013 to determine DM, macro and micro element concentrations. Our results confirm great variations in DM and mineral contents between grass species, across landscapes and seasons. Compared to the Lowland, more elements in the Highland showed interaction effects between species, landscape or seasons. While species variations are attributed mainly to biotic and anthropogenic factors, spatial and temporal variations may be due to topographic, edaphic and/or climatic variations. Minerals most likely to be found deficient were P, Mg, Zn, Cu and K, but this depends on seasons and landscapes. Their amendments through supplementation may deserve utmost consideration.

    Key words: Forage yield, High altitude, Low altitude, Macro and microelements, Vegetation type.

    *Corresponding author: teferabeyenesolomon@yahoo.com, sbeyene@ufh.ac.za

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00020.2 In vitro Evaluation of Plant Derived Dietary Fibers as Prebiotic for Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca)
      S.K. Pradhan, N. Dutta , S.S. Kullu, M. Saini, A.K. Pattanaik , A.K. Sharma and A. Das*
      Centre for Wildlife Conservation, Management and Disease Surveillance ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Pradhan, S.K., Dutta, N., Kullu, S.S., Saini, M., Pattanaik, A.K., Sharma, A.K. and Das, A. 2016. In vitro evaluation of plant derived dietary fibers as prebiotic for Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 227-237.

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the prebiotics potential of plant derived fibres (Jerusalem artichoke (JA) and chicory (CH)) and animal derived substrates (ADS) (chicken cartilage (CC) and goat tendon (GT)) as compared to positive control of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Eleven Indian leopards fed meat only diets were used as donor animals. Pooled faecal samples were diluted 1:20 (w/v), 30 ml of buffered faecal suspension and 250 mg substrate were placed into 100 ml fermentation glass syringe and incubated for 24 h. Each substrate was incubated in quadruplicate, repeated three times at weekly interval. Cumulative gas production (CGP) was measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The CGP, and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate were higher (P<0.01), with simultaneous decrease (p<0.01) in concentration of ammonia, branched chain fatty acids and pH when plant derived substrtaes (PDS) were incubated as compared to ADS. It is evident that the PDS are better fermentation substrate than ADS. Beneficial effects of using PDS as substrates included decreased pH and ammonia level, and increased concentration of butyrate and lactate. Between the PDS, JA showed the best response in terms of reduction of pH, ammonia and improvement in the concentration of butyrate and lactate. It was concluded that JA has the potential to be used as prebiotic in the diet of captive Indian leopard fed meat only diets.

    Key words: Chicory, End product profile, Fermentation substrate, Jerusalem artichoke, Obligatory carnivores.

    *Corresponding author: drasitdas@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00021.4 Milk Production, Methane Emission, Metabolic Profile and Drinking Water Use Efficiency of Lactating Animals Fed Balanced Rations
      P.L. Sherasia*, M.R. Garg, B.T. Phondba, S.A. Hossain and B.P. Patel
      Animal Nutrition Group, National Dairy Development Board, Anand-388 001, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Sherasia, P.L., Garg, M.R., Phondba, B.T., Hossain, S.A. and Patel, B.P. 2016. Milk production, methane emission, metabolic profile and drinking water use efficiency of lactating animals fed balanced rations. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 239-250.

    A field study on early lactating crossbred cows (n=7) and buffaloes (n= 21) was conducted in Rupnagar district of Punjab state. Feeding practices revealed that dietary intake of protein, energy and calcium were higher by 36.6, 22.8 and 29.5% in cows and 20.0, 28.7 and 36.9% in buffaloes, whereas, phosphorus intake was lower by 21.6 and 36.5% in cows and buffaloes, respectively, than their requirements. Balanced feeding improved (P<0.05) fat corrected milk by 0.6 and 0.7 kg />animal/day, whereas, feeding cost reduced (P<0.05) by 14 and 18% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. enteric methane emission, in terms of g />day was reduced by 7.2 (P<0.05) and 10.3% (p<0.01), whereas, in terms of g/kg milk yield was reduced (P<0.05) by 18.8 and 13.4% in cows and buffaloes, respectively, on feeding a balanced ration. Intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen (N) was increased (P<0.05) by 7.1% and 17.3%, whereas, faecal N loss was reduced (P<0.05) by 9.0 and 18.1%; and concentration of faecal archaeol by 16 and 18% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. Parasitic load interm of eggs per gram of faeces reduced (P<0.05) from 173 to 96 and 146 to 73 in cows and buffaloes, respectively. Level of immunoglobulin IgG increased (P<0.05) from 33.1 to 38.0 and 32.4 to 36.9 mg/mL in cows and buffaloes, respectively, whereas, other blood metabolites i.e. blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were not affected. Drinking water use efficiency before and after feeding balanced rations was 0.12 and 0.15, respectively, indicating significant improvement in efficiency of utilization of drinking water for milk production.

    Key words: Environment, Dairy animals, Methane, Productivity, Ration balancing.

    *Corresponding author: pankajs@nddb.coop

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00022.6 Temporal Changes in the Hindgut Health Markers of Labrador Dogs in Response to a Canine-origin Probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii
      Sachin Kumar, A.K. Pattanaik*, Tony Jose, Shalini Sharma and S.E. Jadhav
      Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kumar, S., Pattanaik, A.K., Jose, T., Sharma, S. and Jadhav, S.E. 2016. Temporal changes in the hindgut health markers of Labrador dogs in response to a canine-origin probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 251-269.

    To study the temporal changes in the hindgut health markers in response to a canine-origin probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii, 15 Labrador adult female dogs were distributed into three equal groups. Dogs in control group (CON) received a placebo MRS broth in the homemade basal diet as per the NRC recommendations. In other two groups, dogs received either canine-origin probiotic (Lactobacillus johnsonii isolated from dog faeces) developed at our laboratory (cPRO) or dairy-origin probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-15; dPRO) in the same basal diet The experimental duration of 13-weeks in which feeding of probiotics discontinue after 9-weeks, had experimental protocol involving 3-d digestion trial following 0, 30, 60, 75 and 90 d of feeding to ascertain physical, biochemical and microbial assessment of faecal markers. The digestibility of DM remained similar (P>0.05) irrespective of dietary treatments. Faecal biochemical attributes including pH, lactate and ammonia implied positive influence of probiotic supplementation and the positive influence were more evident in canine-origin probiotic supplemented group. Faecal acetate was higher (P<0.05) in dogs of cpro group as compared to con, however intermediate values were recorded in dpro group. faecal propionate remained unaffected (p> 0.05) among all the groups. There was significant (P<0.01) increase in faecal butyrate in both the probiotics fed groups as compared to con. the faecal concentrations of total vfas and scfas in fresh faeces were higher (p<0.05) in cPRO compared to other two groups. Faecal count of health-positive and healthnegative bacteria revealed that lactobacillus count exhibited higher (P<0.05) values in cPRO, intermediate in dPRO and lower value in CON, with the bifidobacteria population showing highest (P<0.05) value in the both the probiotics supplemented animals. There was a reducing effect in the health-negative clostridia and coliforms in cPRO and dPRO compared to CON. Overall, the results concluded that Probiotic supplementation was effective in improving the hind gut health, antioxidant and metabolic response in dogs. However, the present results are indicative of the superiority of canine-origin probiotic (cPRO) over the dairy-origin (dPRO) one, so far as its application for canines is concerned.

    Key words: Canine-origin probiotic, Dogs, Hindgut health markers, Lactobacillus johnsonii.

    *Corresponding author: pattanaikak1@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00023.8 Faecal Matter as Inoculum for In Vitro Gas Production Technique
      C.S. Pandian*, T.J. Reddy, K. Sivaiah, M. Blummel and Y.R. Reddy
      Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Pandian, C.S., Reddy, T.J., Sivaiah, K., Blümmel, M. and Reddy, Y.R. 2016. Faecal matter as inoculum for in vitro gas production technique. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 271-281.

    Rumen inoculum (RI) was replaced by fresh faecal inoculum (FI) on microbial nitrogen equivalent. Microbial nitrogen in FI was estimated as total N minus N bound to neutral detergent in stover-fed bullocks and 2.8 gram of FI provided similar (6.4 mg) microbial N to that of 10 ml of RI. Extent and rate of in vitro gas production (IVGP) of 200 mg of standards of sorghum stover and hay was measured in syringes containing a total of 30 ml of medium with 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0 g FI and compared with incubations containing 10 ml of RI in 30 ml of medium. Faecal concentration had little effect on extent of gas production but rate of gas production increased from 2.5 to 3.5 g but decreased from 3.5 to 4.0 g. However, rates of gas production in 3.5 g of FI were only about 60-65% of the rates observed with RI. Ranking between FI and RI agreed for rates but not always for extents of gas production. To conclude, similar amounts of microbial N provided by either rumen or faecal inoculum do not result in similar degradative potential in vitro. However, in the present scenario, FI can be used as an alternative inoculum to RI for IVGP technique.

    Key words: Faecal inoculum, In vitro gas production, Microbial nitrogen.

    *Corresponding author: vetsenthamil@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00024.X Evaluation of Carvacrol in Ameliorating Aflatoxin induced Changes with Reference to Growth and Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chickens
      M. Sridhar*, V. Thammaiah and R.U. Suganthi
      National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bengaluru-560 030, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Sridhar, M., Thammaiah, V. and Suganthi, R.U. 2016. Evaluation of Carvacrol in ameliorating aflatoxin induced changes with reference to growth and oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 283-296.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of supplementation of carvacrol (CL), a phytochemical, in ameliorating changes in growth performance and oxidative stress induced by aflatoxin B1 in male broiler chicken fed with maize-soy based diets. The feeding trial of five week duration was conducted with 120 chicks which were divided into 5 dietary treatments with 3 replicates having 8 chicks in each following a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of: basal diet without any supplement (G1), basal diet supplemented with 1.0% CL (G2), diet contaminated with 1.0 ppm toxin (G3), diet contaminated with 1.0 ppm toxin and supplemented with 1.0% CL (G4), and diet contaminated with 1.0 ppm toxin and supplemented with 0.5% each of CL and HSCAS (G5). The growth performance and FCR of broiler chicken supplemented with CL was poor than birds fed basal diet and AFB1 contaminated feed. The weight of liver in AFB1 group of birds showed an increase while in CL supplemented groups it was comparatively low. Activity of serum enzymes ALT, AST were observed to be high and activity of the oxidative stress marker enzymes CAT, SOD and GSR low in AFB1 group birds. A reverse trend in activity of these enzymes was obtained in CL and binder supplemented groups which was not significant in case of GSR. CL supplemented group of birds recorded higher TAC, protein and glucose and lower MDA, TC and triglyceride compared to AFB1 group birds. The severity and degree of the liver lesions obtained in microscopic observation in CL supplemented birds was far less compared to livers of birds fed aflatoxin contaminated feed. It can be concluded that CL is effective in ameliorating aflatoxin induced changes with regard to oxidative stress in broiler chickens but had no positive impact on growth performance.

    Key words: Aflatoxin, Broiler, Growth, Phytochemical, Oxidative stress.

    *Corresponding author: manpalsridhar@yahoo.co.uk

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00025.1 Source of Carbohydrates from Different Grains on Rumen Microbial Protein and Milk Production in Native Dairy Cows
      A.P. Singh and B. Srinivas*
      Dairy Production Section, National Dairy Research Institute, Bengaluru-560 030, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Singh, A.P. and Srinivas, B. 2016. Source of carbohydrates from different grains on rumen microbial protein and milk production in native dairy cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 297-306.

    Objective of the study was to evaluate effect of carbohydrates from maize, sorghum and oats grains on rumen microbial protein (MBP), milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Total soluble sugars (TSS) present in grain were 3 to 4% which were non-reducing sugars. Soya meal contained 5% TSS. Deoni breeds of zebu cows were fed ad libitum finger millet straw (Elusine coracana) as basal roughage. Sixteen cows were randomly divided in 4 × 4 Latin square design and supplemented with concentrate (CS) consisted of soya meal without any grain as control (CG) and maize (T1), sorghum (T2) or oats (T3) as grain source of energy. Although CS intake in CG, T1, T2 and T3 was 0.71, 1.17, 1.39 and 1.55 kg/d, respectively (P<0.01), no significant difference observed in total dry matter intake. among 3 grains, mbp was lesser on maize and higher on sorghum. mbp production on oats and sorghum was statistically comparable. sorghum was used more efficiently than oats grain. mbp flow to duodenum was 124 g />d in CG and only 9% lesser than T1 while, 51% and 42% lesser than T2 and T3 which was due to difference in CS intake. Efficiency of MBP, gN/MJ ME intake, was 3.34 in T2 compared to 2.53, 2.5 and 1.92, respectively in T1, T3 and CG (P<0.05). repeated measure analysis indicated no significant difference within fortnights and among groups for 4% fcm yield and milk composition. milk fat in cg was only 3.80% while it was more than 4% in tgs (p<0.05). In conclusion, addition of sorghum grain in CS had significant impact on rumen MBP and milk fat %. MBP production was more efficient on sorghum grain. Oats grain was statistically comparable to sorghum and had more impact on milk yield than milk composition. Milk yield and milk SNF constituents were affected without grain source in CS.

    Key words: Grains, Indigenous breed, Microbial protein, Milk, Starch, Sugars.

    *Corresponding author: bandla_srinivas@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00026.3 Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Haemato-biochemical Profile in Ven-cobb Broiler Chicken as Influenced by Dietary Supplementation of Crude Soy Lecithin
      Meenu Dubey*, S.P. Tiwari, M.K. Gendley and Raina Doneria
      Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg-491 001, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Dubey, M., Tiwari, S.P., Gendley, M.K. and Doneria, R. 2016. Growth performance, nutrient utilization and haemato-biochemical profile in Ven-cobb broiler chicken as influenced by dietary supplementation of crude soy lecithin. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 307-315

    Day old Ven cobb broiler chicks (n= 288) were randomly allocated to 6 treatment groups (T1 - T6 ) with 4 replicates of 12 chicks in each. The starter (0-14 d), grower (14-28 d) and finisher (28-42 d) diets contained 23, 21.5 and 20% CP and 2900, 3025 and 3100 kcal ME/kg, respectively. Group T1 was control, T2 -T6 contained graded levels (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3% of diet, respectively) of crude soy lecithin (CSL). The average body weight at 6 week was higher in birds fed diet containing 3% CSL. Birds of all the treatment groups consumed less feed as compared to control, however, there was no significant effect on the feed conversion ratio. The Dry matter metabolizability was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the birds of group t6 as compared to t1 , t2 and t3 . the apparent metabolizable energy as percent of ge was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group T6 as compared to other treatment groups. Birds in all the groups were in positive N, Ca and P balance. Inclusion of different levels of CSL did not influence the Hb and PCV concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes viz. alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase at 35 d amongst the birds of different groups. The serum cholesterol concentration was low in T6 as compared to control and there was increase in HDL-cholesterol concentration in the groups T4 , T5 and T6 as compared to control. The total lipid in breast and thigh muscle was not affected. The cholesterol content of thigh and breast muscles decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the groups fed CSL at 2% level or above as compared to control. It is concluded that crude soy lecithin at a level of 3% of the diet was found beneficial with higher body weight and better FCR.

    Key words: Broiler, Soy lecithin, Growth performance, Nutrient utilization

    *Corresponding author: drmeenu.dubey@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00027.5 Replacement of Concentrate Mixture with Dried Azolla on Milk Yield and Quality in Barbari Does
      Ravindra Kumar*, P. Tripathi, U.B. Chaudhary, R.B. Sharma and M.K. Tripathi
      Division of Nutrition, Feed Resources and Product Technology, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura-281 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kumar, R., Tripathi, P., Chaudhary, U.B., Sharma, R.B. and Tripathi, M.K. 2016. Replacement of Concentrate Mixture with Dried Azolla on Milk Yield and Quality in Barbari Does. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 317-324.

    Twelve Barbari goats in 2-3rd lactation at post weaning stage were fed with complete pellet (control and treatment) for 6 wks using CRD with six does per treatment. Control pellet was having gram straw and concentrate mixture in 60:40 while in treatment pellet a part of concentrate was replaced with sundried azolla. Digestion trial was conducted after 4 wks of experimental feeding. Blood and rumen fluid was collected at the end of experimental feeding. Daily feed intake and milk production was recorded. The digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was statistically similar in control (60.67 and 62.63) and treatment group (54.07 and 56.48) of goats. The digestibility of other nutrients was also statistically similar for both the group of goats. Ruminal pH, TVFA and various nitrogenous fractions (Ammonia-N, TotalN, TCA-ppt N and Non protein-N) were similar in control and treatment group of lactating goats. Serum protein and their fractions were within normal range in both the group of lactating goats. The feed intake was statistically similar in both the group. The average milk production (ml/day) in treatment group (490.78) was 19.87% more as compared to control group of goats (409.43) during experimental feeding. The different milk constituents like fat, SNF, protein lactose were also similar in both the group. Present study concluded that sundried azolla meal can be incorporated in the ration of lactating goat.

    Key words: Lactating goats, Nutrient digestibility, Serum metabolites

    *Corresponding author: ravindra.srivastava@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00028.7 Evaluation of Acacia nilotica Seeds for Protein and Carbohydrate Fractions, Gas Production, Energy Value and Mineral Contents from Diverse Locations in India
      Sultan Singh*, S.P. Ahlawat, U.Y. Anele and R.B. Kumar
      Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284 003, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Singh, S., Ahlawat, S.P., Anele, U.Y. and Kumar, R.B. 2016. Evaluation of Acacia nilotica seeds for protein and carbohydrate fractions, gas production, energy value and mineral contents from diverse locations in India. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 325-335.

    In many parts of India, more animals feed on shrubs and trees than on surface fodders like grasses and grass-legume pastures. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Acacia nilotica seeds collected from different locations in India for chemical composition, carbohydrate and protein fractions, energy value, mineral contents, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and gas production. Seeds were sampled from 20 locations in 2003 and from 9 locations in 2005 from different states of country. Crude protein content ranged from 114 to 218 g/kg DM. Seeds from Rewari also had the least neutral detergent fibre (NDF), hemicellulose, and lignin contents (data not shown). A. nilotica seeds harvested in Damoh had the greatest NDF, acid detergent fibre, and cellulose contents. The proportion of degradable CP fractions ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 of total CP. Wide variations were also noted in total carbohydrates and the fractions. There were differences in the cumulative gas volume of the seeds. Rate of gas production ranged from 1.19 to 2.48 ml/h. Seeds from Mandla had the highest IVDMD of 679 versus 507 g/kg DM for seeds harvested in Jhajjar. Wide variations were noted in total phenolics content, with seeds from Rewari having the least value compared with seeds from Sagar, which were more than 16-fold greater. Variation in the gross energy of A. nilotica seeds was less than 3 MJ/kg. As observed in the chemical composition of the seeds, the mineral composition of A. nilotica varied among the different locations, with Ca ranging from 2.19 to 6.30 g/kg DM in Wardha and Coimbatore, respectively. Results revealed that A. nilotica seeds have a high potential as protein and energy supplements for ruminants and that their feeding value is similar to that of the widely used soybean meal and rapeseed meal. Variations in nutritional attributes among A. nilotica seeds from the different locations could be used in tree breeding to develop nutritional superior Acacia cultivars.

    Key words: Acacia seeds, Nutrient composition, Ruminant production, Mineral contents, Supplementation.

    *Corresponding author: singh.sultan@rediffmail.com, sultan.igfri@icar.org.in

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00029.9 Acidulated Sunflower Soapstock as an Energy Source in the Diet of Broiler Chickens
      A.K. Panda*, K. Sridhar, B. Prakash, S.V. Rama Rao and M.V.L.N. Raju
      ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Panda, A.K., Sridhar, K., Prakash, B., Rama Rao, S.V. and Raju, M.V.L.N. 2016. Acidulated sunflower soapstock as an energy source in the diet of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 337-344.

    Acidulated soapstock is a by-product of the vegetable oil refining process and is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary incorporation of acidulated sunflower soapstock (ASS) in broiler chicken diet as an energy source on their performance, carcass characteristics, and quality and immune response. A corn-soybean basal starter (0-3 wk, 2900 kcal ME/ kg and 22% CP) and finisher (4-6 wk, 3000 kcal ME/kg and 20% CP) diet was prepared using sunflower oil (SFO) as an energy source (Control group). Subsequently 3 experimental diets were prepared by replacing SFO with ASS at 25, 50 and 100% level. Each diet was fed ad libitum at random to10 replicates of 5 chicks in each throughout the experimental period (0-6 wk) reared in stainless steel battery brooders under uniform management conditions. Dietary incorporation of ASS replacing SFO at either partially or completely had no adverse effect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics (relative weight of dressed yield, liver, giblet and abdominal fat), relative weight of immune organs (bursa and spleen) and humoral immune response (antibody titres against sheep RBC) of broiler chickens. The protein and fat contents of breast and thigh meat of broilers were also not influenced by the incorporation of ASS in the diets. The TBARS (mg malondialdehyde/g tissue) concentration in the breast meat was not affected, however, TBARS concentration was significantly (P<0.05) increased in thigh meat in the diet in which sfo was completely replaced by ass. it is concluded that acidulated sunflower soapstock can be used as an energy source in the diet of broiler chickens.

    Key words: Acidulated sunflower soapstock, Broiler chickens, Carcass characteristics, Growth performance, Immune response.

    *Corresponding author: akpanda59@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00030.5 Growth Performance, Hemato-biochemical Profile and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed a Diet Supplemented with a Natural Blend of Herbs
      V.B. Singh, V.K. Singh*, D. Tewari, S. Gautam and D. Dwivedi
      Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj-224 229, Faizabad, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Singh, V.B., Singh, V.K., Tewari, D., Gautam, S. and Dwivedi, D. 2016. Growth performance, hematobiochemical profile and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed a diet supplemented with a natural blend of herbs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 345-353.

    To assess the efficacy of a herbal blend on growth performance, hemato-biochemical changes and carcass characteristics of broilers, two hundred fifty Vencobb 400Y day old chicks were distributed equally into five groups of 50 chicks each, which were further divided into five replicate of ten chicks each. The chicks were placed on one of five dietary treatments i.e. basal diet without any supplement (NCON) or with antibiotic (PCON) and NARGROPHYT at 1.0% (NGP-1.0), 1.5% (NGP-1.5) and 2.0% (NGP- 2.0). The effect of these supplements on feed intake, weight gain, gain:feed ratio, hemato-biochemical profile, carcass characteristics and on economic return was assessed in a six week study. The herbal group broilers showed significantly higher weight gain and G:F ratio than NCON group broilers. The weight gain and G:F ratio were highest in NGP-2.0 group and similar to PCON group broilers. H:L ratio was lower in herbal supplemented birds than NCON and serum cholesterol level was also lower in the groups supplemented with NARGROPHYT in comparison to PCON group birds. No significant (P>0.05) effect of NARGROPHYT were observed on carcass characteristics of broilers. The net profit per bird was significantly (P<0.05) higher in ngp-2.0 group than ncon, however highest profit was found in pcon group birds. the outcome of this study indicated that 2% nargrophyt powder had no deleterious effect on bird’s health and it improves the weight gain, feed efficiency and economic return in broiler production.

    Key words: AGP, Broiler, Growth promoter, Phytogenic.

    *Corresponding author: vksinghnduat@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00031.7 Evaluation of Live Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 and Curd as Probiotic on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Early Weaned Crossbred (Landrace x Desi) Piglets
      Kalpana Dhruw, A.K. Verma*, Neeta Agarwal, B.H.M. Patel and P. Singh
      ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Dhruw, K., Verma, A.K., Agarwal, N., Patel, B.H.M. and Singh, P. 2016. Evaluation of live Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 and curd as probiotic on growth performance and nutrient utilization in early weaned crossbred (Landrace x Desi) piglets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 355-361.

    An experiment was conducted to assess the growth performance and nutrient utilization of early weaned piglets fed on diets supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 or curd. Thirty six piglets, weaned at 28 d were divided in to three groups (T1, T2 and T3) with 12 piglets in each group having 4 replicates with equal male female ratio of three animals in each replicate following completely randomized design. Piglets were fed concentrate mixture as per NRC (1998). The T1 group was fed basal diet without probiotic, T2 and T3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15, (1.7x109 cfu/g feed) and curd (2.0x109 cfu/g feed), respectively. Supplementation of either of the probiotics, improved total feed intake (P=0.011), average dry matter intake (P=0.013) and various nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE) intake (P<0.05) as compared to control piglets. the dm and cp digestibility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals of T2 and T3 as compared to control. The total body weight gain and ADG was significantly higher (P<0.001) with better feed efficiency (P=0.008) in the animals of T2 and T3 groups as compared to T1 group. The data indicate that both the probiotics tested were able to ameliorate weaning stress in early weaned piglets as there was improvement in the nutrient utilization and growth performance of probiotic fed piglets. The response of the animals to L. acidophilus and curd was similar therefore curd can also be used as probiotic to make pig farming more profitable.

    Key words: Curd, Early weaned piglets, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15, Nutrient utilization

    *Corresponding author: vermaak62@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00032.9 Methane Production Potential of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes In Vitro
      J.S. Lamba, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*
      Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Lamba, J.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2016. Methane production potential of fruit and vegetable wastes in vitro. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 363-372.

    The main aim of this study was to assess the methane production potential and nutritional worth of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) as livestock feed by in-vitro/in-sacco techniques. The selected FVWs [cabbage leaves (CabLs), cauliflower leaves (CauLs), empty pea pods (PPs), sarson saag waste (SSW) and fruit juice waste without peels (FJW)] were rich in protein varying from 14.6% (SSW) to 20% (CabLs); and EE varying between 2.2% (CauLs) to 3.2% (PPs). The SSW had the highest and CauLs had the lowest amount of cell wall components. The net gas production (NGP) was the highest (P<0.01) from fjw followed by pea pods and lowest in caul. the methane production expressed either as percent in ngp, as ml />100mg DM or as ml/100mg digestible OM at t½ was the highest (P<0.01) in pea pods and lowest in cauls and cabls. the digestibility of ndf and true om in cabls was comparable with that of fjw, cauls and peapods, but significantly higher than ssw. the availability of me was highest from fjw (11.7 mj />kg DM) followed by that from PPs and lowest was observed in CauLs (7.73 MJ/ kg DM). Amongst the FVW evaluated, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) and individual VFA production were observed to be significantly higher from FJW, followed by SSW and CauLs and lowest was from that of pea pods. The acetate: propionate ratio varied significantly from 3.3 (CabLs, SSW and FJW) to 4.05 (CauLs). The digestion kinetics parameters of DM, CP and NDF revealed that the degradation rate (except that of NDF), effective degradability, true digestibility, potential and apparent extent of digestion were observed to be significantly higher in FJW and SSW; and lowest values of these parameters were observed in CabLs. Reverse but significant trend was observed with respect to rumen fill values, which is inversely proportional to potential voluntary DM intake. The results conclusively revealed that amongst the tested FVWs, sarson saag waste and fruit juice waste followed by cauliflower leaves and pea pods have great potential as livestock feed and can serve as alternate feed resources for livestock and can supplement or replace the costly feedstuffs.

    Key words: In-vitro/In-sacco evaluation, Fruit and vegetable wastes, Methane production.

    *Corresponding author: bakshimps@yahoo.com

  • 1. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00001.9 Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Milk Production on Feeding a Balanced Ration and Predicting Manure Nitrogen Excretion in Lactating Cows and Buffaloes under Tropical Conditions
    M.R. Garg, P.L. Sherasia*, B.M. Bhanderi and H.P.S. Makkar
    2. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00002.0 Multi-goal Optimization Process for Formulation of Daily Dairy Cow Rations on Organic Farms: A Slovenian Case Study
    J. Prisenk*, J. Turk and K. Pazek
    3. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00003.2 Effect of Varying Levels of Concentrate Feeding on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Blood Parameters and Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goat Kids
    Tanuja Kushwaha, M.K. Tripathi*, P. Tripathi, D.K. Sharma, U.B. Chaudhary and V. Rajkumar
    4. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00004.4 Immunological Responses of Laying Hens to Dietary Crude Protein and Threonine
    E. Moghaddas, A.H. Mahdavi*, A.H. Samie and M. Mehri
    5. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00005.6 Effect of Shrimp Head Silage Hydrolysate and Distiller’s Dried Corn Grain on Digestibility and Growth of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)
    F.J. Valdez-González#, M. García-Ulloa1, A. Hernández-Llamas2, G.A. Rodríguez-Montes de Oca3 and H. Rodríguez-González*
    6. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00006.8 Effect of Formulated Feeds with Different Nutrient Levels on Growth and Reproductive Performance of Molly, Poecilia sphenops (Valenciennes)
    Abhed Pandey*, Vaneet Inder Kaur, Abhishek Srivastava, S.N. Datta and Avtar Singh
    7. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00007.X Effect of Concentrate Feed and Crop Residue Based Complete Feed Block on Nutrient Utilization, Growth and Physiological Performance of Beetal Kids under Stall-fed Conditions
    S. Saijpaul, Chandrahas* and A.L. Saini
    8. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00008.1 Isolation and Characterization of Lipase Producing Bacteria for Potential Application in Piglet Feed
    W. Tapingkae*, S. Pakdee and M. Yachai
    9. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00009.3 Performance of Goat Kids Fed Detoxified Honge (Pongamia glabra Vent) Seed Meal Based Concentrate Mixtures
    Temjennungsang, Sonal Thakur, T.M. Prabhu*, B.S.V. Reddy, R.G. Gloridoss and B.N. Suresh
    10. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00010.X Effect of Dietary Energy on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Algerian Local Rabbit Does and Their Litters
    D. Saidj*, H. Ainbaziz, O. Salhi, J.L. Hornick and N. Moula
    11. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00011.1 Dietary Supplementation of Catechin: Effect on Performance, Faecal Quality, Mineral and Malondialdehyde Levels in Belgian Malinois Puppies
    K. Kara*, A.E. Sarikaya and E. Aktug
    12. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00012.3 Effect of Zinc Supplementation from Inorganic and Organic Sources on Blood Biochemical, Serum Enzyme, Minerals, Vitamin and Hormones in Kids
    Anju Kala, R.S. Dass* and A.K. Garg
    13. DOI:10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00013.5 Effect of Substitution of Soybean Meal by Detoxified Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Cakes on Diet Digestibility, Kids Growth and Nutrient Efficiency
    D. Kumar*, S. Parnerkar, G.R. Patel and H. Thube
    14. DOI:10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00014.7 Synergistic Effects of Dietary Vitamin C, E and Selenomethionine on Growth Performance, Tissue Mercury Content and Oxidative Biomarkers of Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel) Toxified with the High Dietary Methylmercury
    G. Park, M. Moniruzzaman, H. Yun, S. Lee, Y. Park and S.C. Bai*
    15. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00015.9 Effect of Replacing Maize with Bakery Waste on the Performance of Growing Crossbred Pigs
    Keshab Barman*, M.K. Tamuli, D.K. Sarma, S. Banik, Mohan N.H., R. Thomas, Gokuldas P.P., S.R. Pegu and P. Kaushik
    16. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00016.0 Fermentation Pattern in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Fed Crop Residue Based Complete Rations vis-a-vis Conventional Feeding System
    R.K. Konka*, D. Srinivas Kumar, J.V. Ramana, A. Ravi and E. Raghava Rao
       
      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00001.9 Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Milk Production on Feeding a Balanced Ration and Predicting Manure Nitrogen Excretion in Lactating Cows and Buffaloes under Tropical Conditions
      M.R. Garg, P.L. Sherasia*, B.M. Bhanderi and H.P.S. Makkar
      Animal Nutrition Group National Dairy Development Board, Anand-388 001, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Garg, M.R., Sherasia, P.L., Bhanderi, B.M. and Makkar, H.P.S. 2016. Nitrogen use efficiency for milk production on feeding a balanced ration and predicting manure nitrogen excretion in lactating cows and buffaloes under tropical conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 1-12.

    A field study on 7090 lactating cows and 4534 lactating buffaloes was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding a balanced ration on milk production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and to develop models for predicting manure nitrogen excretion (NE). Data were collected from 529 villages, under ration balancing programme being implemented in different states of India. Based on the days of lactation, animals were categorized as early (<100 d), mid (100-200 d) and late (> 200 d) stages of lactation. On feeding a balanced ration, milk yield increased (P<0.05) by 6.2, 4.5 and 5.9% in early lactating local cows, crossbred cows and buffaloes, respectively. milk yield was not affected in the mid stage of lactation, however, it improved by 3.7, 2.3 and 5.9% during the late stage of lactation in local cows, crossbred cows and buffaloes, respectively. average milk fat increased by 1.2, 0.9 and 1.8 g />kg, while cost of milk production reduced (P<0.05) by 24, 16 and 14% in local cows, crossbred cows and buffaloes, respectively. average dietary nitrogen intake (ni) reduced (p<0.05) by 14.1% on feeding a balanced ration. Percent dietary NE in manure reduced (P<0.05) from 81.6 to 78.0%, indicating improved NUE from 0.18 to 0.21 in all species. Linear regression equations were developed to predict the manure NE and revealed a strong positive correlation between dietary NI and manure NE, indicating dietary NI as the best predictor for manure NE (r2 =0.97). Available N models were also compared with our models and Weiss (2009) model fits with our models for predicting manure NE (0.21 kg/d) in lactating animals. Result demonstrates that balanced feeding improved NUE for milk production, by way of improving nutrient utilization and reducing its excretion in manure.

    Key words: Balanced feeding, Efficiency, Nitrogen excretion, Productivity, Regression equation.

    *Corresponding author: pankajs@nddb.coop

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00002.0 Multi-goal Optimization Process for Formulation of Daily Dairy Cow Rations on Organic Farms: A Slovenian Case Study
      J. Prisenk*, J. Turk and K. Pazek
      University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Pivola 10, 2311 Hoce, Slovenia
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Prisenk, J., Turk, J. and Pazek, K. 2016. Multi-goal optimization process for formulation of daily dairy cow rations on organic farms: A slovenian case study. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 13-24

    A model for the optimization of daily feed rations for dairy cows on organic farms was developed and tested on a real case study (organic farm) from Slovenia. The methodological approach was based on a combination of linear programming (LP) and weighted goal programming (WGP) techniques. For the formulation of balanced rations, penalty function intervals were introduced. The model took into account five different nutritional and mineral requirements and it precisely calculated the daily rations for dairy cows. This model was used to calculate winter and summer rations using two different scenarios (WGPSC1 and WGPSC2), where the net energy for lactation and the total cost of the rations each had a significantly different importance in the optimization process. The results show the WGPsc2 feed rations are more expensive (summer for 1.19 • and winter for 1.10 •) and more balanced compare to WGPsc1 and LP feed rations. WGPsc1 feed rations have the same costs and also more balanced compare to LP feed rations. The balance of the feed rations confirms the fact that deviations from the daily nutrient requirements (never exceeded more than 1%) in the WGP are much lower in comparison to the LP rations.

    Key words: Dairy cow ration, Linear programming, Organic farming, Weighted goal programming.

    *Corresponding author: jernej.prisenk@um.si

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00003.2 Effect of Varying Levels of Concentrate Feeding on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Blood Parameters and Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goat Kids
      Tanuja Kushwaha, M.K. Tripathi*, P. Tripathi, D.K. Sharma1, U.B. Chaudhary and V. Rajkumar
      Division of Nutrition Feed Resource and Product Technology Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom-281 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kushwaha, T., Tripathi, M.K., Tripathi, P., Sharma, D.K., Chaudhary, U.B. and Rajkumar, V. 2016. Effect of varying levels of concentrate feeding on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters and gastrointestinal nematodes in goat kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 25-36.

    An experiment on 27 Barbari kids (67d old; 5.9±1.52 kg LW) in three equal groups assessed the influence of increasing concentrate level at 10 (10-C), 20 (20-C) g/kg LW or ad libitum (Ad-C) on performance, gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and haemato-biochemicals for 120d with free access to water, dry and green roughage. Concentrate feeding enhanced average daily gain (P<0.001), with the similar total feed dm intake in the three groups. however, dm intake through roughage and green reduced (p<0.005) with higher concentrate feeding. Feed efficiency for gain improved by concentrate feeding and the best FCR (4.7 kg feed/kg gain) was observed in Ad-C kids. Total ME and protein intake was similar, while efficiency of ME (MJ/kg gain; P<0.001) and protein (g/kg gain; P<0.082) increased with higher concentrate feeding. Rumen fluid pH and NH3 -N were different while TVFA were similar among three groups. Faecal egg count (FEC) in different groups showed a linear trend (P=0.075) of low prevalence with increase in concentrate feeding. The mean FEC was 2.6 times higher in 10-C kids (6891 eggs/g), 1.7 times in 20-C kids (4529 eggs/g FEC) compared to Ad-C kids (2609 eggs/g). Plasma protein and albumin reduced (P<0.05), while globulins, and plasma urea did not change, whereas blood Hb levels had increased (P<0.05), while WBC reduced (P<0.05) with higher concentrate levels. Concentrate feeding improved (P<0.05) carcass traits. It was concluded that, higher concentrate feeding promoted growth and lowered GI nematodes burdens, where animals consumed 57% concentrate in total diet.

    Key words: Concentrate level, GI nematodes, Performance, Haemto-biochemicals, Kids

    *Corresponding author: mktripathi@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00004.4 Immunological Responses of Laying Hens to Dietary Crude Protein and Threonine
      E. Moghaddas, A.H. Mahdavi*, A.H. Samie and M. Mehri
      Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Moghaddas, E., Mahdavi, A.H., Samie, A.H. and Mehri, M. 2016. Immunological responses of laying hens to dietary crude protein and threonine. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 37-49.

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) and threonine (Thr) on immunological responses of laying hens. The 48-wk old layers fed 9 experimental diets consisting of 3 levels of dietary CP (90, 95, and 100% of Hy-Line W-36 recommendations) and Thr (100, 110, and 120% of Hy-Line W-36 recommendations) throughout experiment. Statistical analysis showed that dietary CP did not significantly affect the pattern of serum protein, leukocyte count (LC), humoral and mucosal immunity, relative weight of pancreas, liver, and spleen. However, feeding low-CP diets reduced total protein (P=0.17), albumins (P<0.01) and beta-globulins (p<0.05) in the serum. Increasing dietary levels of Thr in low-CP diets increased the proportion of serum gamma globulins, secondary immune response against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antigen, goblet cell number and relative weight of pancreas (P<0.05). Supplementing low-CP diet with highest level of Thr linearly increased antibody production against SRBC (P<0.05). The results indicated that although decreasing dietary CP had no adverse effects on the immune functions of laying hens, the optimal systemic and mucosal immunity might be achieved by increasing dietary Thr in low-CP diets.

    Key words: Laying hen, Crude protein, Threonine, Systemic immunity, Mucosal immunity.

    *Corresponding author: mahdavi@cc.iut.ac.ir

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00005.6 Effect of Shrimp Head Silage Hydrolysate and Distiller’s Dried Corn Grain on Digestibility and Growth of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)
      F.J. Valdez-González#, M. García-Ulloa, A. Hernández-Llamas, G.A. Rodríguez-Montes de Oca and H. Rodríguez-González*
      Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR) Unidad Sinaloa, Instituto Politécnico Nacional Guasave, Sinaloa, 81101, México
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Valdez-González, F.J, García-Ulloa, M., Hernández-Llamas, A., Rodríguez-Montes de Oca, G.A. and Rodríguez-González, H. 2016. Effect of shrimp head silage hydrolysate and distiller’s dried corn grain on digestibility and growth of red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 51-60.

    We studied the effect of shrimp head silage protein hydrolysate (SHSP) and distillers dried corn grain (DDCG) as ingredients on the digestibility of diets for Oreochromis mossambicus. Three diets containing 30% protein, 10% lipid, and 4.9 kcal/g calorific value were prepared: a reference diet and two based on the inclusion of 84.0% of the reference diet, 15% of SHSP or DDCG, and 1% of chromic acid as a marker. Six fish (45.5±2.5g) were introduced in each culture unit (60 L). There were significant differences (P<0.05) for the apparent dry matter digestibility among the diets. the shsp diet obtained the higher dry matter digestibility (86.33±0.8%). while, no differences (p<0.05) in the apparent protein digestibility were observed among the diets and ingredients. The mean final weight (58.77±3.8g) was similar for the three experimental treatments. It can be conclude concluded that the red tilapia is able to efficiently consume diets containing these animal and plant-derived ingredients.

    Key words: Digestibility, Distillers dried grain, Extrusion, Oreochromis mossambicus, Protein hydrolysate.

    *Corresponding author: hrodriguezg@ipn.mx, hervey23@hotmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00006.8 Effect of Formulated Feeds with Different Nutrient Levels on Growth and Reproductive Performance of Molly, Poecilia sphenops (Valenciennes)
      Abhed Pandey*, Vaneet Inder Kaur, Abhishek Srivastava, S.N. Datta and Avtar Singh
      College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Pandey, A., Kaur, V.I., Srivastava, A., Datta, S.N. and Singh, A. 2016. Effect of formulated feeds with different nutrient levels on growth and reproductive performance of molly, Poecilia sphenops (Valenciennes). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 61-69.

    Molly fish (Poecilia sphenops) were reared for 100 days under four dietary treatments (D1 to D4) with varying crude protein levels. Experimental diets (D1, D2, D3 and D4) were formulated from locally available feed ingredients having crude protein percentage of 25.5, 26.35, 27.8 and 28.8, respectively. Effect of the four diets was studied in terms of growth and reproductive performance based on growth parameters, gonadal development and fry production. Fish fed diet D4 with highest protein level resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate (1.29±0.01%, 1.74±0.02%, 1.88±0.04% and 2.10±0.02% in treatment d1, d2, d3 and d4, respectively) along with significantly (p<0.05) lower FCR (2.60±0.02, 2.14±0.02, 1.98±0.03 and 1.62±0.02 in treatment D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively). The ovary weight, ovary volume, absolute fecundity and mean gonadosomatic index (154.57±9.85, 159.69±5.47, 174.38±2.42 and 212.15±9.58% in treatment D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively) of molly fed on the diet D4 were significantly (P<0.05) higher in comparison to D1, D2 and D3. The number of fry produced (49.39±0.59, 68.04±0.29, 74.90±0.87 and 108.12±1.16 in treatment D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively) and their survival (83.69±0.61, 84.85±0.63, 88.69±0.49 and 93.38±0.53 in treatment D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively) were also significantly (P<0.05) higher in fish fed D4 compared to other three diets. Hence, it can be concluded that 28.8% protein is adequate for growth and reproductive performance of molly.

    Key words: Broodstock nutrition, Fecundity, Formulated feed, Growth, Poecilia sphenops.

    *Corresponding author: pandeyabhed@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00007.X Effect of Concentrate Feed and Crop Residue Based Complete Feed Block on Nutrient Utilization, Growth and Physiological Performance of Beetal Kids under Stall-fed Conditions
      S. Saijpaul, Chandrahas* and A.L. Saini
      College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Saijpaul, S., Chandrahas and Saini, A.L. 2016. Effect of concentrate feed and crop residue based complete feed block on nutrient utilization, growth and physiological performance of beetal kids under stall-fed conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 71-81.

    To study the effect of two concentrate feed (20% CP, TC (Control) vs 25% CP, THP) and a crop residue based feed block (TFB) on nutrient utilization, growth and physiological performances, 18 Beetal kids of 3.5 months were randomly divided into three groups with 6 animals in each. Kids of TC and THP were fed with green fodder ad lib and wheat straw @ 5% of fodder offered, whereas, kids of TFB were fed only crop residue based complete feed block. After 180 days, the body weight gain of TC and THP were similar but significantly (P<0.05) higher than tfb. the digestibilities of om, cp, ndf and total carbohydrates were also higher in kids of tc and thp than tfb. the dcp intake and nitrogen retention was higher in tc and thp kids. the total nitrogen outgo remained similar in all the groups. barring few exceptions, haematological and biochemical profiles among various treatment groups were almost similar and within normal range. both t3 and t4 had elevated trend in thp and tc, whereas, it declined in tfb group. it was concluded that optimum feed utilization and growth can be obtained in goat kids fed with concentrate mixture with 20% cp along with ad lib green fodder under stall-fed conditions. further, increasing the cp content in concentrate mixture has no additional advantage and crop residue based complete feed can meet only the maintenance and partial growth requirements of the animals.

    Key words: Beetal kids, Biochemistry, Feed block, Growth, Haematology, Hormone.

    *Corresponding author: drchandrahas2003@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00008.1 Isolation and Characterization of Lipase Producing Bacteria for Potential Application in Piglet Feed
      W. Tapingkae*, S. Pakdee and M. Yachai
      Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Tapingkae, W., Pakdee, S. and Yachai, M. 2016. Isolation and characterization of lipase producing bacteria for potential application in piglet feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 83-95.

    The objectives of this study were to screen the most effective lipase producing microorganism suitable for triacylglycerols containing medium chain fatty acid degradation. The isolates were characterized for their potential of lipase activity, stability in pig’s digestive tract, feed pelleting temperature, and antimicrobial activity under simulated pig gastric conditions. Microorganisms were isolated from samples of coconut milk, palm, bamboo seed, fermented soybean, and hot spring soil. The total of 235 isolates were screened on agar medium containing coconut oil. Using p-nitrophenyl laurate as substrate, MHS- 4 showed maximum lipase activity of 630 U/ml and most stable under digestive tract conditions and feed pelleting temperature (85°C). Besides lipase activity, the crude enzyme expressed amylase, cellulase, xylanase, and protease activities. The enzyme product was not toxic to rat intestine epithelial cell and mouse subcutaneous connective tissue. Isolate MHS-4 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis MHS-4 based on the 16S rRNA sequences. Moreover, coconut oil emulsion with exogenous lipase from B. licheniformis MHS-4 exhibited inhibition zone on agar plates against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Clostridium butyricum. The combination also revealed a significant (P<0.05) depressive effect on piglet small intestinal and hindgut microbiota. the lactic acid and volatile fatty acids indicating the fermentation activity of the microbiota was lowered (p<0.05). Therefore, the results indicated that addition of coconut oil with exogenous lipase of B. licheniformis MHS-4 could be used in the diet of weaned piglets to promote the growth.

    Key words: Bacillus licheniformis, Coconut oil, Digestive tract, Lipase, Medium-chain fatty acids

    *Corresponding author: wanaporn.t@cmu.ac.th

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00009.3 Performance of Goat Kids Fed Detoxified Honge (Pongamia glabra Vent) Seed Meal Based Concentrate Mixtures
      Temjennungsang, Sonal Thakur, T.M. Prabhu*, B.S.V. Reddy, R.G. Gloridoss and B.N. Suresh
      Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Hebbal, Bengaluru-585 401, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Temjennungsang, Thakur, S., Prabhu, T.M., Reddy, B.S.V., Gloridoss R.G. and Suresh, B.N. 2016. Performance of goat kids fed detoxified honge (Pongamia glabra Vent) seed meal based concentrate mixtures. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 97-106.

    A long term study was conducted to assess the effect of solvent extracted honge seed meal (SHSM) or alkali (1% NaOH w/w) treated SHSM (AHSM) in the diet on growth performance, nutrient utilization and blood biochemical parameters of goat kids. Twenty male kids (3-4 months old) were assigned equally in completely randomized design to five isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate feed mixtures containing GNC as protein source (T1; Control) or SHSM (T2 and T3) or AHSM (T4 and T5) replacing 25% and 50% GNC, respectively. The respective CFMs were offered to meet 80% of their protein requirements while chaffed finger millet straw was offered ad libitum to all kids. The results revealed that daily dry matter intake (g/head) was significantly lower at 50% level of inclusion of HSM as compared to that of 25% inclusion level or control. However, daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were comparable among different groups. Metabolizability of various nutrients, retention of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances also remained similar among different groups. There were also non-significant differences in hemoglobin, serum protein fractions viz., total proteins, albumin and globulin, serum enzymes viz., SGPT, SGOT and AP among different groups at different time intervals. Concentration of ammonia N and TCA soluble N in rumen liquor were lower (P≤0.05) in SHSM or ASHM based diet fed groups, while total N, TCA perceptible N and total volatile fatty acids concentration remained comparable among different groups. It was concluded that SHSM or ASHM can be incorporated in the concentrate feed mixture replacing conventional protein supplements to meet up to 25% of nitrogen requirement without any adverse effect on performance of goat kids.

    Key words: Goat kids, Growth, Honge seed meal, Nutrient utilization, Serum enzymes.

    *Corresponding author: prabhupmann@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00010.X Effect of Dietary Energy on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Algerian Local Rabbit Does and Their Litters
      D. Saidj*, H. Ainbaziz, O. Salhi1, J.L. Hornick and N. Moula
      Veterinary Sciences Institute, Saad Dahlab University, Blida, Algeria
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Saidj, D., Ainbaziz, H., Salhi, O., Hornick, J.L. and Moula, N. 2016. Effect of dietary energy on productive and reproductive performance of Algerian local rabbit does and their litters. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 107-117.

    Local rabbit reared in Algeria is well adapted to the climate of the country while being characterized by a variable phenotype and prolificacy. The present work was carried out to study the effects of dietary energy content on productive and reproductive performance of local does and their litters during their first two lactations. A total of 75 nulliparous rabbit does were separated in three equal groups and received isoproteinous diets (15% CP) differing in their digestible energy (DE) contents viz. 2300, 2450 and 2600 kcal DE/kg for dietary groups LE, ME and HE, respectively. Diets were supplied ad libitum between parturition and weaning which was performed at age 28 d. Dietary energy didn’t show any effects on does live weight, weight gain and milk yield, but decreased significantly (P<0.001) feed intake during all weeks post partum. total feed intake during 28 d post partum were than significantly higher (7635 g for le vs. 6860 g for me vs. 5872 g for he) (p<0.001). We observed no significant difference between diets and parities for litter size and litter weight from birth to weaning. Milk production was on average 7.37% higher at the second parity (P<0.019). Litter weight was higher the two first weeks of live at the second parity (P<0.05). Does and their litters were more responsive to diet energy at the second parity. In the limit of this experiment, dietary energy has an influence on feed intake of local does but not on female weight and litter performance during the first two cycles of reproduction.

    Key words: Energy content, Lactation, Litter, Performance, Rabbit does.

    *Corresponding author: dyhiasdj1@yahoo.fr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00011.1 Dietary Supplementation of Catechin: Effect on Performance, Faecal Quality, Mineral and Malondialdehyde Levels in Belgian Malinois Puppies
      K. Kara*, A.E. Sarikaya and E. Aktug
      Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kara, K., Sarikaya, A.E. and Aktug, E. 2016. Dietary supplementation of catechin: effect on performance, faecal quality, mineral and malondialdehyde levels in Belgian Malinois puppies. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 119-128.

    The present study examined the effects of catechin administration on performance, faecal quality, mineral, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in 12 Belgian Malinois puppies at 6 months of age. Dietary supplementation of catechin was not observed to have a significant (P>0.05) effect on live weight, faecal pH, DM, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, and faeces score. The catechin significantly (P<0.05) decreased plasma mda concentration. serum ca, k, mg, fe, zn, cu, cr, mn, and co levels were not affected (p> 0.05) by the catechins; however serum Se levels were determined at a high level (P<0.05) compared to the control group. the levels of zn (p<0.05), Mg (P<0.01), and Cu (P<0.05) in the faeces increased significantly but there were no differences (P>0.05) in the levels of other minerals. It may be concluded that administration of catechins together the diet of Belgian Malinois puppies showed antioxidant effects without imparting any negative effects on live weight, feed intake, faecal quality, and serum trace and macro mineral levels, however elimination via faeces of Zn, Mn, and Cu increased with catechin addition.

    Key words: Antioxidant, Belgian Malinois, catechins, Faeces, Mineral

    *Corresponding author: karakanber@hotmail.com, kanberkara@erciyes.edu.tr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00012.3 Effect of Zinc Supplementation from Inorganic and Organic Sources on Blood Biochemical, Serum Enzyme, Minerals, Vitamin and Hormones in Kids
      Anju Kala, R.S. Dass* and A.K. Garg
      Mineral and Vitamin Nutrition Laboratory Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kala, A., Dass, R.S. and Garg, A.K. 2016. Effect of zinc supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on blood biochemical, serum enzyme, minerals, vitamin and hormones in kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 129-142.

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of zinc supplementation from inorganic (zinc sulphate) and organic (zinc methionine) sources on blood biochemical, serum enzyme, minerals, vitamins and hormones in 15 kids divided randomly into three groups (n=5) based on body weights. Group I and II were supplemented with 40 ppm of zinc from zinc sulphate and zinc methionine, respectively, whereas 20 ppm zinc (zinc methionine) was given in group III for 135 days. Blood samples were collected at 0 d followed by 45 days interval for estimation of hematological, blood biochemical, and serum enzymes, minerals, vitamins and hormones. Results revealed that hematological and biochemical parameters did not differ due to supplementation of different sources of Zn except haemoglobin and glucose. Blood hemoglobin (g/dl) was higher (P<0.05) in gp ii than i and iii. serum glucose (mg/dl), was higher (P<0.01) in group i and iii than ii. activity of enzymes and minerals were similar in three groups, except zinc and enzyme sod showing higher (p<0.05) activity in Gp II than I and III. Concentration of serum hormones and vitamins were unaffected by zinc supplementation. It may be concluded that 40 ppm of organic zinc in diet of kids was better as compared to inorganic zinc as it enhanced hemoglobin, SOD activity, serum zinc concentration and decreased serum glucose. Also 20 ppm of organic zinc was as effective as 40 ppm inorganic zinc as hemoglobin, glucose, SOD activity and serum zinc concentration were similar in these groups.

    Key words: Blood biochemical, Immune response, Inorganic zinc, Kids, Organic zinc.

    *Corresponding author: rsd@ivri.up.nic.in

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00013.5 Effect of Substitution of Soybean Meal by Detoxified Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Cakes on Diet Digestibility, Kids Growth and Nutrient Efficiency
      D. Kumar*, S. Parnerkar, G.R. Patel and H. Thube
      Animal Nutrition Research Department Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kumar, D., Parnerkar, S., Patel, G.R. and Thube, H. 2016. Effect of substitution of soybean meal by detoxified Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cakes on diet digestibility, kids growth and nutrient efficiency. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 143-154.

    In order to know the effect of feeding detoxified jatropha cake (dJC) on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and blood parameters in growing kids (Capra hircus), eighteen Marwari male kids of 6-8 months old (BW 16.82±0.37 kg) were randomly allotted to three groups of six in each for 120 days experimental period. The group dJC-0 served as control, whereas, dJC-25 and dJC-75 group were fed detoxified jatropha cake replacing dietary soybean protein at 25 and 75% level in the concentrate and the jowar hay was fed ad libitum. The dJC is higher in protein (57.4%), fibre (9.6%), ash (3.0%), Ca (0.9) and P (1.9) compared to soybean meal. The digestibility coefficient of various nutrients did not differ among the treatment groups. All the animals were in positive N, Ca and P balance, which did not differ among treatments. Intake of dry matter was statistically similar and ranged between 3.50 and 3.77 kg/100 kg body weight. The daily water ingested by the growing kids ranged between 2.17 and 2.36 kg/kg DMI. The average daily gain was 91±3, 87±3 and 82±4g, respectively in dJC-0, dJC-25 and dJC-75 groups (P>0.05). The average increase in heart girth, height and length was statistically similar (P>0.05). The efficiency of nutrient utilization in terms of DM, protein (CP and DCP) and energy (TDN) were not influenced by inclusion of detoxified jatropha cake. The ruminal pH, concentration of TVFA and different nitrogen fractions were statistically similar. There was no significant difference in blood parameters and cell mediated immunity. It was concluded that the detoxified jatropha cake can be incorporated in concentrate mixture by replacing soybean meal protein up to 75% level without affecting digestibility, total nutrients intake, growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, rumen fermentation and health of growing kids.

    Key words: Detoxified jatropha, Digestibility, Immunity, Goat, Growth, Rumen parameters.

    *Corresponding author: drdharmendravet2310@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00014.7 Synergistic Effects of Dietary Vitamin C, E and Selenomethionine on Growth Performance, Tissue Mercury Content and Oxidative Biomarkers of Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel) Toxified with the High Dietary Methylmercury
      G. Park, M. Moniruzzaman, H. Yun, S. Lee, Y. Park and S.C. Bai*
      Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture Feeds & Foods Nutrition Research Center Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Park, G., Moniruzzaman, M., Yun, H., Lee, S., Park, Y. and Bai, S.C. 2016. Synergistic effects of dietary vitamin C, E and selenomethionine on growth performance, tissue mercury content and oxidative biomarkers of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel) toxified with the high dietary methylmercury. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 155-164.

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the tissue level synergistic effects of dietary vitamin C, E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on dietary methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight semi-purified diets were formulated to contain two different vitamin C levels as L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (400 and 800 mg AMP/kg diet), two vitamin E levels as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (100 and 200 mg TA/kg diet) and two selenium (Se) levels as selenomethionine (2 and 4 mg SeMet/kg diet) on the constant mercury (Hg) level (20 mg MeHg/kg diet). Eight experimental diets, in a 2×2×2 factorial design (C400E100Se2 , C400E100Se4 , C400E200Se2 , C400E200Se4 , C800E100Se2 , C800E100Se4 , C800E200Se2 and C800E200Se4 ) were fed to triplicate group of fishes averaging 3.12±0.04g (mean±SD) in the semi-recirculation system. After 10 weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG) of fish fed diets containing C400E200Se4 , C800E100Se2 and C800E200Se2 were significantly higher than those of fish fed diets containing C400E100Se2 and C400E100Se4 (P<0.05). feed efficiency (fe), specific growth rate (sgr), protein efficiency ratio (per) showed a similar trend as wg. the most significant depleting trend of mercury accumulation was found in kidney tissue. tissue oxidative biomarkers like superoxide dismutase (sod) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars) in liver and kidney tissues improved up to higher levels of vitamin c, e and se. therefore, these findings indicated that the best combinations of dietary antioxidant levels could be c400e200se4 or c800e200se2 diet based on wg by analysis of variance (anova) test in terms of reducing tissue mehg content in juvenile olive flounder.

    Key words: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenomethionine, Methylmercury, Olive flounder.

    *Corresponding author: scbai@pknu.ac.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00015.9 Effect of Replacing Maize with Bakery Waste on the Performance of Growing Crossbred Pigs
      Keshab Barman*, M.K. Tamuli, D.K. Sarma, S. Banik, Mohan N.H., R. Thomas, Gokuldas P.P., S.R. Pegu and P. Kaushik
      ICAR-National Research Centre on Pig, Rani, Guwahati-781 131, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Barman, K., Tamuli, M.K., Sarma, D.K., Banik, S., Mohan N.H., Thomas, R., Gokuldas, P.P., Pegu, S.R. and Kaushik, P. 2016. Effect of replacing maize with bakery waste on the performance of growing crossbred pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 165-169.

    Eighteen crossbred (HS x Ghungroo) grower pigs (about 2 months age, weighing from 5.95±0.33 to 6.03±0.53 kg) were divided into three groups of six each in a randomized block design. The pigs were fed on three different experimental diets by replacing maize with bakery waste at 0, 25 and 50% in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The pigs were fed on the experimental grower rations twice daily. The average dry matter intake (g/d) was ranged from 635.0 in T1 to 690.5 in T3 , respectively and same was increased (P<0.01) with increase level of bakery waste in the diets. the digestibility of dm, om and nfe were similar (p> 0.05) across the treatments, while digestibility of CP and EE were higher with both the bakery waste containing diets T2 and T3 when compared to T1 . The digestibility of crude fiber decreased significantly (P<0.05) with incorporation of bakery waste in the diet. the average dm intake was 635.0±3.08, 661.6±4.07 and 690.5±3.07 g/d, respectively in T1, T2 and T3 groups which was improved (P<0.01) significantly with increasing level of bakery waste in the diets. the adg was 227.6±15.5, 230.6±5.33 and 218.4±11.69 g/d, respectively in T1, T2 and T3 groups showing similar values among the groups. Similarly, FCR was also found similar across all the treatments. The cost of production per kg LW (Rs.) ranged from 46.97±2.92 in T3 to 53.22±3.11 in T1 group which was similar across all the treatments. It was reduced (P>0.05) by Rs. 3.71 and Rs.6.25 in T2 and T3 groups, respectively in comparison to T1 group. It is concluded that maize can be replaced up to 50% with bakery waste for formulation of economic ration without affecting the growth, FCR and feed cost per kg gain in crossbred pigs.

    Key words: Bakery waste, Economy, FCR, Growth, Maize, Nutrient utilization, Replacement.

    *Corresponding author: barman74@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00016.0 Fermentation Pattern in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Fed Crop Residue Based Complete Rations vis-a-vis Conventional Feeding System
      R.K. Konka*, D. Srinivas Kumar, J.V. Ramana, A. Ravi and E. Raghava Rao
      Department of Animal Nutrition, NTR College of Veterinary Science Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Gannavaram-521 102, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Konka R.K., Srinivas Kumar, D., Ramana, J.V., Ravi, A. and Raghava Rao, E. 2016. Fermentation pattern in murrah buffalo bulls fed crop residue based complete rations vis-a-vis conventional feeding system. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 171-179.

    The experiment compared the effect of feeding complete rations with conventional feeding system on rumen fermentation pattern of Murrah buffalo bulls. Four adult rumen fistulated buffalo bulls (5 y; 331±9.36 kg BW) were divided into four groups in a 4 x 4 Latin square switch over design and offered three isonitrogenous complete rations comprising of locally available crop residues viz. maize stover (T1 ), red gram straw (T2 ) and black gram straw (T3 ), and concentrate mixture in 60:40 ratio, respectively, and a conventional ration (C) for a period of 28 days. The rumen- N fractions (NH3 -N, TCA-insoluble nitrogen, Residual nitrogen), TVFA and pH were higher (P<0.01) in the srl of animals fed rations t1 to t3 when compared to those animals fed c. the total n, food and protozoal n was similar among the treatment groups. it is therefore, concluded that feeding of complete rations comprising of locally available crop residues as roughage source provided conducive rumen environment for better nitrogen utilization and higher tvfa production than conventional ration.

    Key words: Crop residues, Complete rations, Conventional feeding, Rumen fermentation.

    *Corresponding author: dr_rajakishore@yahoo.co.in

  • 1. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00034.7 Improved Feed Technologies for Expanding the Productivity Frontiers in Asia: The Importance of System Perspectives for Transforming Waning Animal-agriculture
    C. Devendra*
    2. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00035.9 Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Antifungal Agents, Probiotics or Toxin Binder to Aflatoxin-contaminated Diets on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Pigs
    M. Meth, S.L. Ingale, S.H. Lee, K.Y. Kim, Y.H. Choi, I.K. Kwon, Y.S. Kim, Y.H. Kim and B.J. Chae*
    3. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00036.0 Effects of Fermented Sesame Meal on the Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Intestinal Morphology of Ducks
    X. Ding, L. Li*, Y. Lv, F. Xu, H. Kuang and S. Wang
    4. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00037.2 Effect of Feed Restriction on Nutrient Metabolism, Metabolic Profile and Excretion of Nutrients in Goats
    Sunil Kumar, Narayan Dutta, S. Baliyan, A.K. Pattanaik and S.K. Singh
    5. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00038.4 Nutritional Responses of Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) caught from Rhine River (Germany) as a Wild Species to Different Fish Oils
    M.R. Ghomi,*, E.V. Elert, A. Uhde and P. Fink
    6. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00039.6 Reevaluation of Optimum Dietary Protein Level in Juvenile Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)
    H. Yun, J. Lee, G. Park, I.K. Jang, K. Katya, E. Shahkar and S.C. Bai*
    7. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00040.2 Effect of Supplementation of Hesperidin on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Antioxidant Activity in Pigs
    S.K. Park, H.J. Lee , J.C. Park, J.Y. Jeong, E.S. Cho and M.J. Kim*
    8. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00041.4 Metabolism of Gamma-tocopherol in the Liver of Male SpragueDawley Rat
    Y.Q. Xu, J. Gorge1 and Z.K. Ding*
    9. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00042.6 Marigold Petal Meal: A Natural Carotenoid Source for Pigmentation in Swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri)
    G.H. Pailan*, Parimal Sardar and B.K. Mahapatra
    10. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00043.8 Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites as Feed Additives on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Microbial Profile of Buffaloes
    L. Samal, L.C. Chaudhary*, N. Agarwal and D.N. Kamra
    11. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00044.X Effect of Supplementation of Dietary Protected Lipids at Varying Levels of Feed Restriction on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Deccani Ram Lambs
    S. Raju,*, Y. Ramana Reddy, D. Nagalakshmi and T. Raghunandhan
    12. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00045.1 Evaluation of administering Duddingtonia flagrans through Complete Feed Block for Controlling Haemonchus contortus in Sheep
    F.A. Khan, A. Sahoo* and S.K. Dixit
    13. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00046.3 Nutritional Evaluation of Some Leaves used as Top-feeds in NorthGujarat Region
    M.M. Pawar*, A. Kumar, S.R. Bhagwat, K.J. Ankuya1 and D.S. Bhosale
    14. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00047.5 Seasonal Variation in Proximate and Mineral Composition of Koi, (Anabas testudineus, Bloch 1792)
    B.N. Paul*, S. Chanda, S. Das, N. Sridhar, G.S. Saha and S.S. Giri
    15. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00048.7 Occurrence, Prevention and Limitation of Mycotoxins in Feeds
    M.F. Abdallah, G. Girgin and T. Baydar*
       
      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00034.7 Improved Feed Technologies for Expanding the Productivity Frontiers in Asia: The Importance of System Perspectives for Transforming Waning Animal-agriculture
      C. Devendra*
      130A Jalan Awan Jawa, 58200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Devendra, C. 2015. Improved feed technologies for expanding the productivity frontiers in Asia: The importance of system perspectives for transforming waning animal-agriculture. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 311-336.

    Agricultural productivity and economic growth have had an unprecedented rate of rural growth, improved livelihoods and increased prosperity in Asia. Feed resources, the primary determinant of productivity, are most important, but are constrained to drive the supply of animal proteins. Currently the scenario is challenged by at least four defining factors: (i) the need for more food and productivity growth, (ii) rampant poverty and malnutrition, (iii) inefficient use of natural resources, and (iv) the effects of climate change. A fifth critical factor is underutilisation of productivity-enhancing technologies, adoption, replication and intensification that link production with post-production in supply value and food chains. Serious doubts have been raised about the capacity and resource efficiency to expand food production. With ruminants, the doubts are reflected in low productivity and inadequate supplies of animal proteins, meat and milk to meet current and projected human demands. Ensuring efficient feed utilisation and production systems are thus central to innovative strategies and pathways are necessary to accelerate productivity and also cope with climate change.

    Current trend in research on feeds is testing the component technologies. The traditional researchfarmer-extension model for technology delivery is unacceptable, due to the “top down” prescriptions, inappropriate production systems, complex interactions of the natural resources, doubtful technical capacity of the extension personnel, and inability to respond quickly to farmers’ needs. Transformation is necessary and is determined by (i) intensive use of new technologies that are adapted to climate change, (ii) empowering farmers into agents of poverty reduction and stewards of the environment, and (iii) when there is community-based participation in economic activities and expansion. Ruminants can be the entry point for the development of LFAs. The limited availability of feeds in small farm systems enables the development of low input systems and cost-effective increased productivity. That forms the backbone of about 470 million mainly mixed small farms in Asian agriculture. They provide jobs for about 60% of the working population, and account for 50-90% of Asia’s total food production. The opportunities for technology-induced feed-based productivity gains in economic production systems, policy framework, rigorous R&D, investments, and multinational engagement for improving livelihoods are most challenging. Small farmers and the landless have an enduring dream of well-fed animals, sustained food security, reduced poverty, assured survival, and ability to cope with climate change in harmony with agricultural landscapes and self-reliance. These goals are achievable, provided there is collective will to serve and vision to provide direction and lead the way.

    Key words: Asia, Community-based farming systems, Dryland agriculture, Productivity-enhancing feed technologies, Rain-fed research and development, Systems perspectives, Technology delivery.

    *Corresponding author: cdev@pc.jaring.my

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00035.9 Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Antifungal Agents, Probiotics or Toxin Binder to Aflatoxin-contaminated Diets on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Pigs
      M. Meth, S.L. Ingale, S.H. Lee, K.Y. Kim, Y.H. Choi, I.K. Kwon, Y.S. Kim, Y.H. Kim and B.J. Chae*
      College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Meth, M., Ingale, S.L., Lee, S.H., Kim, K.Y., Choi, Y.H., Kwon, I.K., Kim, Y.S., Kim, Y.H. and Chae, B.J. 2015. Effects of dietary supplementation of antifungal agents, probiotics or toxin binder to aflatoxin-contaminated diets on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 337-347.

    In order to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of antifungal agent, probiotics or toxin binder to aflatoxin contaminated diets on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of growing pigs, 240 growing pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW 53.97±0.35 kg) were randomly allotted to five treatments on the basis of BW (4 pens per treatment with 12 pigs in each pen). The dietary treatments included negative control (NC; basal diet), positive control (PC; diets containing 20 µg/kg aflatoxin), and PC diet supplemented with either 0.10% sodium propionate (antifungal agent; T1), 0.30% Bacillus subtilis (T2) or 0.1% zeolite (toxin binder; T3). The diets were fed in a meal form for two phases (phase I; 0-4 wk and phase II; 5-9 wk). Results indicated that the growing pigs fed NC and T3 diet had greater (P<0.05) final bw and overall adg (0-9 wk) than pigs fed pc and t1 diets. final bw and overall adg of pigs fed t2 diets remained comparable (p> 0.05) with pigs fed PC, T1 and T3 diets. Dietary treatments had no effects (P>0.05) on ADFI, gain:feed ratio, apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, GE and CP of pigs. Also, there were no effects (P>0.05) of dietary treatments on carcass characteristics of pigs except for weight of liver, which was lower (P<0.05) in pigs fed nc diet than other treatments. during phase ii, pigs fed nc and t3 diets had lesser (p<0.05) WBC count than that of pigs fed PC, T1 and T2 diets. Blood glucose level of pig fed NC and T3 diets were lower (P<0.05) than pigs fed PC, T1 and T2 diets. Dietary treatments had no effects (P>0.05) on blood cortisol level. These results indicated that dietary inclusion of 1.0% zeolite (a toxin binder) had potential to improve performance of growing pigs fed 20 µg/kg aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    Key words: Aflatoxin, Growing pigs, Performance, Probiotics, Sodium propionate, Zeolite.

    *Corresponding author: bjchae@kangwan.ac.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00036.0 Effects of Fermented Sesame Meal on the Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Intestinal Morphology of Ducks
      X. Ding, L. Li*, Y. Lv, F. Xu, H. Kuang and S. Wang
      School of Animal Science and Technology Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Ding, X., Li, L., Lv, Y., Xu, F., Kuang, H. and Wang, S. 2015. Effects of fermented sesame meal on the performance, serum biochemical parameters and intestinal morphology of ducks. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 349-359.

    A trial was performed to study the effect of feeding a diet containing solid-state fermentation sesame meal (FSM) replaced soybean meal (SBM) on the growth performance and serum biochemistry parameters of ducks. The amount of FSM required to replace the proportion of soybean meal in diet was determined. 90% sesame meal and 10% slurry of corn were mixed and then inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis. Over the 14-day fermentation, dietary phytate was reduced from 0.62% to 0.05%. A total of 360 twenty-one-day-old Cherry Valley ducks were randomly allocated into 3 dietary treatments, with 4 replicate groups per treatment containing 30 ducks. In three treatment groups, fermentation sesame meal replaced soybean meal at 0, 3% or 6%, respectively. At the end of 21 day feeding trial, 10 ducks from each treatment were killed. Their dressing percentage was recorded. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal segments of the small intestine were collected for intestinal morphology, and serum was collected for biochemical constituents. Results showed that the daily gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks fed 3% or 6% FSM were similar with those fed SBM (P>0.05). Total phosphorus content in the serum from the FSM groups was improved (P<0.01). total protein content in the serum from the 6% fsm group was lower than that in the 0 and 3% fsm treatment groups (p<0.05). Concentrations of IgG were Significant higher for animals fed 6% FSM than for those fed SBM (P<0.05). In comparison for whole SBM, FSM increased villus height (P<0.05) in the duodenum. Villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejuna of ducks fed FSM were also markedly higher than for those fed SBM (P<0.01). There were no effects of FSM on the duck’s ileum mucosa morphology, or eviscerated index and half eviscerated index. Therefore, it was concluded that sesame meal fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative source of protein, and that fermented sesame meal can replace soybean meal in the diets of duck for potentially reduced production costs of duck.

    Key words: Duck, Fermentation sesame meal, Growth, Serum biochemical parameter.

    *Corresponding author: llm56@ahau.edu.cn

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00037.2 Effect of Feed Restriction on Nutrient Metabolism, Metabolic Profile and Excretion of Nutrients in Goats
      Sunil Kumar, Narayan Dutta, S. Baliyan, A.K. Pattanaik and S.K. Singh
      Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Kumar, S., Dutta, N., Baliyan, S., Pattanaik, A.K. and Singh, S.K. 2015. Effect of feed restriction on nutrient metabolism, metabolic profile and excretion of nutrients in goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 361-374.

    This experiment examined the effect of feed restriction on nutrient metabolism, nutrient excretion and metabolic profile in goats. Fifteen goats of about 1 year age and average body weight (BW) of 12.59±0.60 kg were randomly divided into three equal groups viz., Control, RF-1 and RF-II. The goats of control group were fed a TMR ad libitum as per the predicted requirement (Kearl, 1982), while in group RF-I and RF-II goats were fed 12.5 and 25% restricted diets, respectively of predicted requirements for 60 days. Blood was collected from all experimental animals at 0 and 60d. A metabolism trial of 6 days duration was conducted towards the end of feeding trial. Daily intake of dry (DM) and organic matter (OM; g/kgW0.75) was significantly (P<0.01) higher in control group followed by rf-i and rf-ii groups. digestibility of dm, om, cp, ee and adf was significantly (p<0.05) higher in RF-II as compared to control, with RF-I at intermediate position. Urinary excretion and retention of nitrogen as well as retention of P was comparable among treatment groups. Feed restriction at 12.5 and 25% levels significantly reduced the excretions of nitrogen (17.58-30.93%) and phosphorus (17.64-36.9%) by goats. Nutrient density (%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group as compared to RF-II. Haemoglobin, PCV, serum glucose, total protein, globulin, A: G ratio, AST, ALT and ALP were comparable among treatment groups, however, serum albumin and urea N were higher in control. Body weight (kg) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in control and RF-I as compared to RF-II. Feed restriction considerably improved the nutrient utilization in goats and mild restriction at 12.5 percent level was found to be more efficient.

    Key words: Feed restriction, Goats, Metabolic Profile, Nutrient, Nitrogen, Phosphorus.

    *Corresponding author: dutta65@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00038.4 Nutritional Responses of Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) caught from Rhine River (Germany) as a Wild Species to Different Fish Oils
      M.R. Ghomi,*, E.V. Elert, A. Uhde and P. Fink
      Cologne Biocenter, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 47b, 50674 Cologne, Germany
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Ghomi, M.R., Elert, E.V., Uhde, A. and Fink, P. 2015. Nutritional responses of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) caught from rhine river (Germany) as a wild species to different fish oils. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 375-384.

    This study was aimed to determine the effects of food supplementation with different levels of two types of fish oil (anchovy and menhaden oils), on growth and the composition of fatty acids and essential amino acids in muscle of a wild and alien species. In this study round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) caught from Rhine River (0.95-1.0 g fresh mass) were fed for 47 days diets containing 5% anchovy oil (AO), 5% menhaden oil (MO) or 2.5% AO+2.5% MO. Fish were cultured in indoor 40 L aquaria (12 aquaria in total). The feeding rate was adjusted to 10% of the fish fresh mass per day and water temperature was constantly maintained at 19°C. After 47 days, no differences were observed in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (P>0.05). The lowest FCR was found in AO diet. Muscle fatty acid composition was influenced by dietary fish oils, and fish fed the AO diet have shown slightly higher contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in their muscle. Muscle amino acid composition was not affected by the diet, an except for leucine. The results indicated that addition of fish oil is important in maintaining the content of n-3 fatty acids in fish in aquaculture.

    Key words: Amino acid, Anchovy oil, Fatty acid, Fish feeds, Menhaden oil, Round goby.

    *Corresponding author: mghomi@tonekabon.iau.ac.ir

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00039.6 Reevaluation of Optimum Dietary Protein Level in Juvenile Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)
      H. Yun, J. Lee, G. Park, I.K. Jang, K. Katya, E. Shahkar and S.C. Bai*
      Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Yun, H., Lee, J., Park, G., Jang, I.K., Katya, K., Shahkar, E. and Bai, S.C. 2015. Reevaluation of optimum dietary protein level in juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 385-394.

    This feeding trial was conducted to reevaluate the optimum dietary protein level required for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Triplicate of thirty shrimp averaging 1.0±0.1g (mean±SD) were randomly distributed into each of four diets in 12 plastic aquaria. Shrimps were fed one of four isocaloric diets, containing 33, 38, 44 and 54% crude protein (CP) (CP33, CP38, CP44 and CP54, respectively) at a ratio of 4% body weight per day for six weeks. At the end of feeding trial, weight gain and specific growth rate of shrimp fed CP44 and CP54 diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed CP33 diet (P<0.05). feed conversion ratio of shrimp fed cp44 diet was significantly lower than that of shrimp fed cp33 diet. protein efficiency ratio was significantly affected by dietary protein level. dietary protein levels significantly influenced on amino acid composition of edible portion of shrimp. broken line analysis of weight gain showed an optimum protein requirement of 43.3% in juvenile whiteleg shrimp. therefore, these results suggest that the optimum dietary protein level could be higher than 43.3% but less than 44% reared in the semi-recirculation system.

    Key words: Amino acid composition, Growth performance, Protein requirements, Whiteleg shrimp.

    *Corresponding author: scbai@pknu.ac.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00040.2 Effect of Supplementation of Hesperidin on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Antioxidant Activity in Pigs
      S.K. Park, H.J. Lee , J.C. Park , J.Y. Jeong , E.S. Cho and M.J. Kim*
      Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University, 143-747, Korea
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Park, S.K., Lee, H.J., Park, J.C., Jeong, J.Y., Cho, E.S. and Kim, M.J. 2015. Effect of supplementation of hesperidin on growth performance, immune response and antioxidant activity in pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 395-404.

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hesperidin supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant activity of growing pigs (56 d old; average BW 20.4±0.6kg). In Exp. 1, 24 pigs with an initial BW of 19.53 kg were randomly allotted to three treatments, and fed for 9-wk either on a basal diet (CON), alone or with 0.01% (Hes-1), and 0.02% hesperidin (Hes- 2). Initial and final BW, ADG or average daily feed intake were not different among the treatments. Hes-1 or Hes-2 groups, on the other hand, had a higher (P<0.05) gain feed ratio compared to con group. antioxidant activity in terms of serum superoxide dismutase activity was increased (p<0.05) in Hes-2 compared to CON group. To confirm this beneficial effect of hesperidin as an antioxidant reagent, in vitro antioxidant activities of hesperidin were ascertained vis-à-vis butylated hydroxytoluence (BHT) in Exp. 2 by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity. Hesperidin showed lower (P<0.05) IC50(concentration for scavenging 50% of DPPH radicals) than BHT. In Exp.3, 12 barrows (13.8±0.9 kg BW) fed 0 (CON), 0.02% (Hes-0.02) or 0.04% (Hes-0.04) of hesperidin for 4-wk were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 µg/kg BW). Blood samples were obtained at 0,3, 6, 12 and 24 h to determine immune response. There was no effect of hesperidin on levels of immuneglobulins (IgM, IgG and IgA). Taken together, administration of hesperidin has beneficial effects on feed efficiency and antioxidant activity suggesting that hesperidin can be used as a feed additive in growing pigs.

    Key words: Antioxidant activity, Growth performance, Hesperidin, Immune response, Pigs

    *Corresponding author: mjkim00@korea.kr

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00041.4 Metabolism of Gamma-tocopherol in the Liver of Male SpragueDawley Rat
      Y.Q. Xu, J. Gorge and Z.K. Ding*
      Faculty of Animal Sciences and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Xu, Y.Q., Gorge, J. and Ding, Z.K. 2015. Metabolism of gamma-tocopherol in the liver of male spraguedawley rat. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 405-416.

    Vitamin E (VE) plays important roles in the physiological and biochemical processes of animals and humans. However, VE is an unique vitamin that has not been understood thoroughly because the metabolites of VE are very complicated and hard to be analysed. This experiment was conducted to study the metabolism of γ-tocopherol, one of 8 VE isomers, in the liver post-mitochondrial supernatant (S9) of male Sprague-dawley rat (Rattus norvegiens, SD-rat) using a novel approach. The results showed that an optimal reactive system of γ-tocopherol metabolism in vitro was composed of 5 mg/ml of S9, 8 µg/ ml of γ-tocopherol, 1 mmol/ml of nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and 45 min of reactive time at 35°C. The metabolites of γ-tocopherol could be successfully analyzed using gradient elution and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A main metabolite was identified as ω-hydroxylate, a side chain of γ-tocopherol, when the structure of γ-tocopherol metabolites was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A conclusion was drawn that ω-hydroxylate, a main metabolite of γ-tocopherol, could be most utilized by SD-rat and other mammals.

    Key words: Metabolism, γ-tocopherol, Post-mitochondrial supernatant (S9), SD-rat.

    *Corresponding author: zhaokun.ding@hotmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00042.6 Marigold Petal Meal: A Natural Carotenoid Source for Pigmentation in Swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri)
      G.H. Pailan*, Parimal Sardar and B.K. Mahapatra
      Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Kolkata Centre, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700 091, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Pailan, G.H., Sardar, P. and Mahapatra, B.K. 2015. Marigold petal meal: A natural carotenoid source for pigmentation in Swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 417-425.

    An experiment was conducted to see the effect of feeding graded levels of marigold petal meal on pigmentation of skin, growth performance, nutrient utilization and muscle biochemical composition in ornamental fish, swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). Different iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets were formulated with supplementing five levels (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%) of marigold flower meal. The experimental fish (n=225) were divided into five equal groups having three replicates under each group and fed respective experimental diets for a period of 60 days. The biochemical composition of fish muscle was similar in all the groups. Total carotenoids concentration (µg/g) in the skin of sword tail at the beginning and end of feeding was similar in control diet (2.94 vs 3.17). The supplementation of marigold petal meal in the diet significantly increased (P<0.05) the total carotenoid concentration in the muscle and skin of sword tail from 2.87 to 6.17 µg />g. Growth performance and nutrient utilization in fish were similar in all the experiment groups. The study revealed that marigold petal meal at the 4% level can be supplemented in the diet of swordtail for improvement of skin coloration through increase in the carotenoids concentration in skin without any adverse effect on body composition, growth and feed conversion efficiency.

    Key words: Carotenoids, Marigold petal meal, Pigmentation, Swordtail.

    *Corresponding author: ghpailan@cife.edu.in

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00043.8 Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites as Feed Additives on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Microbial Profile of Buffaloes
      L. Samal , L.C. Chaudhary*, N. Agarwal and D.N. Kamra
      Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Samal, L., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2015. Effect of plants containing secondary metabolites as feed additives on rumen fermentation and rumen microbial profile of buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 427-437.

    Four fistulated adult Murrah buffaloes were fed on a basal diet consisting of wheat straw and concentrate mixture in a 4x4 Latin square design to study the effect of feeding plant secondary metabolites on rumen function and microbial ecology. The four groups were, no additive (Control), essential oil mixture (Mix 1), mixture of seeds rich in saponin and essential oil (Mix 2) and mixture of seeds rich in saponin and fruit pulp rich in tannin, saponin and essential oil (Mix 3). Daily intakes of feed was similar (P>0.05) in all the four groups. Feeding of any of the additives have not affected (P>0.05) rumen pH. The concentration of ammonia N was reduced (P<0.001) in the treatment groups supplemented with additives. the ruminal enzymes viz. carboxymethyl-cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, protease and acetyl esterase activities and concentration of lactic acid were not affected (p> 0.05) by supplementation of any additives. The additives have not affected the population of Ruminococcus flavefaciences, fungi and methanogens, whereas, Fibrobacter succinogenes population increased and protozoa decreased in the entire additive fed groups. To study the rumen methanogen diversity, mcrA (methyl coenzyme M reductase) gene was amplified. The number of clones analysed were 44 from control animals and 89 were from Mix 1 fed animals. The bootstrap analysis showed that in control group, 60% of the clones were uncultured microbes whereas it was 25% in Mix 1 group. In Mix 1 group, 26% of the clones were related to that of Methanobrevibacter millerae strain ZA10 in comparison to only 3.39% in control group. It is concluded that feeding of additives containing PSM have not exerted any adverse effect on rumen fermentation of buffaloes. However there was change in different microbial groups with additives supplementation. The additives containing essential oils (Mix I) resulted in shifts within the methanogen population in comparison to control animal.

    Key words: Buffalo, Microbial profile, Plant secondary metabolites, Rumen fermentation

    *Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00044.X Effect of Supplementation of Dietary Protected Lipids at Varying Levels of Feed Restriction on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Deccani Ram Lambs
      S. Raju,*, Y. Ramana Reddy , D. Nagalakshmi and T. Raghunandhan
      Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences S.V. Veterinary University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Raju, S., Ramana Reddy, Y., Nagalakshmi, D. and Raghunandhan, T. 2015. Effect of supplementation of dietary protected lipids at varying levels of feed restriction on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Deccani ram lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 439-446.

    The effect of supplementation of bypass fat in the form of Ca-soap of red palm oil on growth performance and carcass characteristics at varying levels of feed shortage was studied in lambs. Eighteen Deccani ram lambs (BW 19.45±1.06 kg) were randomly distributed into three equal groups. The first group (T1 ) of lambs was fed complete ration ad lib. The second (T2 ) and third (T3 ) group of lambs were restricted to 85% and 70% of T1 feed intake, respectively with supplementation of calcium soap of red palm oil at 10% of total DM requirement during the trial period of 180d. The ADG in lambs on ration T3 was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to those on ration t1 and t2 . the feed efficiency was higher in lambs fed ration t2 (9.19 kg) followed by t1 (12.93 kg) and t3 (13.14). cost />kg gain was Rs. 79.91, 95.74 and 147.15 in lambs fed ration T1 , T2 and T3 , respectively. Supplementation of Ca-soap of red palm oil at feed restriction up to 30% had no significant effect on dressing percentage, lean meat percent, fat and bone: meat ratio. However, the lambs fed T2 ration had higher dressing percentage and other carcass traits than the other two groups tested in this study. It is concluded from the result of present study that calcium soap of red palm oil can be used as energy supplement at 100 g/d, when there is a shortage of feed intake to an extent of 15% with improved weight gain, and carcass characteristics. But economics has to be considered while supplementing protected fat to sheep under feed shortage conditions.

    Key words: Bypass fat, Deccani sheep, Feed shortage, Performance, Supplementation.

    *Corresponding author: sagivetraju@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00045.1 Evaluation of administering Duddingtonia flagrans through Complete Feed Block for Controlling Haemonchus contortus in Sheep
      F.A. Khan, A. Sahoo* and S.K. Dixit
      Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar-304 501, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Khan, F.A., Sahoo, A. and Dixit, S.K. 2015. Evaluation of administering Duddingtonia flagrans through complete feed block for controlling Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 447-456.

    In this experiment, a device was developed and evaluated to deliver nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to sheep by using local fungal isolate. Sterilized barley grains supporting the fungal growth were incorporated into straw based complete feed blocks (CFB). The viability of fungal spores was assessed for the biological control of ovine Haemoncus contortus. Two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus), each consisting of five Garole x Malpura lambs (about 6-9 months old) which were artificially infected with 6000 Haemonchus contortus larvae per lamb. The treated group received fungus incorporated CFB (400g block per lamb delivering 6 million chlamydospores) daily during 7 weeks. Fungal chlamydospores survived well in CFB with very little moisture (11.8%) when stored at room temperature. Mean larval development was significantly (P<0.001) lower compared to control from day 1 to the end of the feeding. larval recovery from the grass samples started from 2nd week of the experiment, and it increased markedly on the plot grazed by the control group reaching as high as 4000 l3 />kg DM compared to less than 600 L3 /kg DM in the plot grazed by experimental group fed on CFB with fungal spores. No significant difference was observed in the number of eggs per gram of faeces between both the groups. However, significant (P<0.001) reduction in developed larvae on coprocultures was seen for fungal spore incorporated group. a low level of larval counts were maintained in the plot grazed by fungus treated group throughout the experiment. the study demonstrated that cfb feeding might prove a potential means of delivery of d. flagrans to sheep for successful biological control of h. contortus.

    Key words: Complete feed block, Duddingtonia flagrans, Haemonchus contortus, Sheep.

    *Corresponding author: sahooarta1@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00046.3 Nutritional Evaluation of Some Leaves used as Top-feeds in NorthGujarat Region
      M.M. Pawar*, A. Kumar, S.R. Bhagwat, K.J. Ankuya and D.S. Bhosale
      Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Pawar, M.M., Kumar, A., Bhagwat, S.R., Ankuya, K.J. and Bhosale, D.S. 2015. Nutritional evaluation of some leaves used as top-feeds in North-Gujarat region. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 457- 464.

    The nutritive values of eleven tree leaves viz. Citrus limon, Ficus bengalensis, Ficus relegiosa, Ricinus communis, Ziziphus mauritiana, Azadirachta indica, Musa acuminatea, Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocephala, Prosopis julifora and Albizia samanm were evaluated by chemical analysis and in vitro gas production test. There were significant (P<0.05) differences among tree species in terms of chemical composition. crude protein contents ranged from 7.98 to 19.96%. the ether extract content varied from 1.45 to 6.04% and crude fibre content from 13.77 to 26.86%. neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre contents were in the range of 27.78 to 51.84 and 21.79 to 33.70%, respectively. in vitro evaluation revealed lower methane production (ml />g OM) in Ficus bengalensis, Acacia nilotica, Albizia samanm, Ficus relegiosa and Azadirachta indica compared to the control at 10 and 20% inclusion level of selected leaves. The in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVMOD) ranged from 53.98 to 64.92 and 61.14 to 67.81%, respectively at 10 and 20% inclusion. The total volatile fatty acids (mM) ranged from 35.01 to 45.52 and 32.46 to 44.47 at 10 and 20% inclusion, respectively. Results revealed that most of tree leaves studied in this experiment have potential nutritive values indicated by high crude protein content, IVOMD and low fiber values.

    Key words: Chemical composition, IVGPT, IVOMD, Methane, Tree leaves.

    *Corresponding author: maheshpawar@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00047.5 Seasonal Variation in Proximate and Mineral Composition of Koi, (Anabas testudineus, Bloch 1792)
      B.N. Paul*, S. Chanda, S. Das, N. Sridhar , G.S. Saha and S.S. Giri
      Regional Research Centre of Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, Kolkata-700 118, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Paul, B.N., Chanda, S., Das, S., Sridhar, N., Saha, G.S. and Giri, S.S. 2015. Seasonal variation in proximate and mineral composition of Koi, (Anabas testudineus, Bloch 1792). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 465-470.

    The variation in proximate composition and mineral content was determined in relation to season and body weight of Koi (Anabas testudineus). The samples were collected from different places and seasons; further fishes were grouped as small (10-50 g) and big (52-150 g). The protein content was significantly higher (P<0.05) in small fish during january-april season vis-à-vis other groups. the fat content of the species was significantly (p<0.01) higher during September-December and January-April. The ash content was significantly higher (P<0.01) in small fish during May-August when compared to big fish. The moisture was significantly (P<0.01) higher and fat content was significantly lower during May-August in respective body size of Koi. Calcium content was significantly higher (P<0.01) in small fish during May-August whereas the phosphorus content was significantly higher (P<0.01) during JanuaryApril and September-December, irrespective of their body weights. Sodium and potassium content were significantly (P<0.01) higher in small fish during January-April. The zinc content is also higher in small fish during January-April. The results indicated that Koi is a good source of protein, fat and minerals.

    Key words: Anabas testudineus, Proximate composition, Minerals, Season.

    *Corresponding author: bnpaulcifa@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00048.7 Occurrence, Prevention and Limitation of Mycotoxins in Feeds
      M.F. Abdallah, G. Girgin and T. Baydar*
      Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, 90-06100, Ankara, Turkey
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Abdallah, M.F., Girgin, G. and Baydar, T. 2015. Occurrence, prevention and limitation of mycotoxins in feeds. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 471-490.

    There has been a significant concern regarding the potential health risks for humans and animals via foods and feeds that are contaminated with different agents. Particularly, mycotoxin contamination is of great importance as it is widespread and unpreventable. In both foods and feeds, molds produce secondary metabolites called mycotoxins; these are produced generally after the fungi reach their maturity. Depending on the definition used, hundreds of fungal compounds are recognized as mycotoxins. However, the attention is mainly focused on aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumunisins, and zearalenone which are considered the most important threats for human and animal health. Mycotoxin contamination causes a fundamental problem all over the world including developed countries. Additionally, the economic impact of mycotoxins is another global concern on the agricultural markets. These concerns are based on toxicological data, which show that naturally occurring levels of mycotoxins have adverse effects in farm and laboratory animals as well as humans. The diversity of mycotoxin structures induces various toxic effects. Owing to the significant health risks and economic impacts, considerable investigations are being performed to diminish their harmful effects and to prevent their formation. In order to limit their levels, much research has been focused on detecting the mycotoxins in contaminated food and feedstuffs. This review will focus on information about primary mycotoxins, their occurrence, related regulations, prevention and methods of detection within the light of the current literature.

    Key words: Aflatoxin, Fumonisins, Mycotoxins, Ochratoxin, Zearalenone.

    *Corresponding author: tbaydar@hacettepe.edu.tr

  • 1. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00020.7 Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidant Status and Immune Response in Buffalo Calves
    S. Parashuramulu, D. Nagalakshmi*, D. Srinivasa Rao M. Kishan Kumar and P.S. Swain
    2. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00021.9 Effect of Plant Containing Secondary Metabolites on In vitro Methane Production and Feed Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor
    Inamdar Arif, L.C. Chaudhary*, Neeta Agarwal and D.N. Kamra
    3. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00022.0 Response of Growing Egg Type Pullets (CARI Priya) to Variable Dietary Energy and Critical Amino Acids Levels
    A.B. Mandal*, Chandra Deo and A.V. Elangovan
    4. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00023.2 Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Performance, Hemato-biochemical Parameters and Economics of Broiler Production
    V.K. Dwivedi, V.K. Singh*, D. Tewari, S. Gautam and S.P. Singh
    5. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00024.4 Evaluation of Whole Sugarcane based Rations in Lactating Crossbred Cows
    S.A. Dhage*, Y.G. Fulpagare1 and S.H. Mane
    6. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00025.6 Efficacy of Methionine Hydroxy Analogue in Ameliorating Aflatoxicosis in Japanese Quails
    Ram Singh*, A.B. Mandal and Divya
    7. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00026.8 Effect of Phase-feeding on Milk Production, Milk Composition, Nutrient Utilization and Haemato-biochemical Constituents in Lactating Crossbred Cattle
    Divya Negi, B.C. Mondal* and D.P. Tiwari
    8. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00027.X Efficacy of Pharmacologic Levels of Zinc Supplementation around Weaning for Prevention of Piglet Diarrhoea
    Ilakshy Deka*, J. Goswami, A. Saikia, D. Kalita and B.C. Sarmah
    9. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00028.1 Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Composition of Sirohi Kids under Field Condition
    U.B. Chaudhary*, A.K. Das, P. Tripathi and M.K. Tripathi
    10. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00029.3 Nutritional Evaluation of Sugarcane Press Residue in Layers
    N. Suma*, B.S. Venkatarami Reddy, R.G. Gloridoss, T.M. Prabhu, G.U. Manju , M.T. Rekha and Amitha R. Gomes
    11. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00030.X Response of Varying Energy and Rumen Undegradable Protein on Growth, Feed Utilization and Blood Biochemical Profile of Crossbred Heifers
    R.S. Grewal, C.S. Ahuja1, J.S. Lamba, P. Malhotra and S. Saijpaul*
    12. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00031.1 Azolla (Azolla pinnata) as a Green Feed Supplement for Dairy Cattle - An On Farm Study
    N.K.S. Gowda, A. Manegar, S. Verma, N.C. Valleesha, G. Maya, D.T. Pal and K.P. Suresh
    13. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00032.3 Evaluation of Plant-based Attractants in the Diets of Labeo rohita Fingerlings
    B.N. Paul* and S.S. Giri
    14. DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00033.5 Antinutrients in Oilseed Brassica: Uses and Potential Applications
    Manju Bala*, Surya Tushir, S.K. Tyagi and R.K. Gupta
       
      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00020.7 Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidant Status and Immune Response in Buffalo Calves
      S. Parashuramulu, D. Nagalakshmi*, D. Srinivasa Rao M. Kishan Kumar and P.S. Swain
      Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science Hyderabad-500 030, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Parashuramulu, S., Nagalakshmi, D., Rao, D.S., Kumar, M.K. and Swain, P.S. 2015. Effect of zinc supplementation on antioxidant status and immune response in buffalo calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 179-188.

    Eighteen buffalo calves with an average BW of 125±2.5 kg were randomly allotted to three groups in a completely randomized design to investigate the effect of dietary Zn supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and immune response. The dietary treatments were viz., basal diet (control; 29.72 ppm zinc from feed ingredients) alone or supplemented with 80 and 140 ppm Zn as ZnSO4 .7H2 O. Calves were fed the respective diets individually at 3% of BW to meet the nutrient requirements throughout 120 days of experiment. Blood was collected after 110 days of feeding trial for estimating antioxidant enzyme activities. The humoral immune response against Brucella abortus and chicken RBC was assessed after 95 days of feeding and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against phytohaemagglutinin phosphate (PHA-P) indicative of cell mediated immune response (CMI) was assessed at 120 days of experiment. Lipid peroxidation was higher (Pd”0.05) in calves fed BD, which reduced with Zn supplementation and was lowest with 140 ppm Zn supplementation. The glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities were higher (P<0.01) in 140 ppm zn supplemented calves, while rbc catalyse activity was higher (p<0.05) in 80 ppm Zn supplemented calves compared to those fed the control diet. Humoral immune response against Brucella abortus was higher (P<0.05) in Zn supplemented calves and highest response was observed with 140 ppm Zn supplementation. The haemagglutination titers against chicken RBC did not differ significantly with variation in dietary Zn supplementation. The DTH reaction against PHA-P was maximum at 24h post inoculation, maximum response was observed with 140 ppm Zn supplementation and lowest (P<0.05) in those fed the basal diet. Thus results of present study indicated that 140 ppm Zn supplementation to a basal diet containing 29.72 ppm Zn resulted in higher antioxidant activities and immune responses in buffalo calves.

    Key words: Antioxidants, Buffalo, Calves, Immunity, Zinc

    *Corresponding author: dnlakshmi@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00021.9 Effect of Plant Containing Secondary Metabolites on In vitro Methane Production and Feed Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor
      Inamdar Arif, L.C. Chaudhary*, Neeta Agarwal and D.N. Kamra
      Division of Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Inamdar A., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2015. Effect of plant containing secondary metabolites on in vitro methane production and feed fermentation with buffalo rumen liquor. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 189-196.

    The present study was conducted to screen the plants containing secondary metabolites for their antimethanogenic activity by in vitro gas production system. A total 14 plant parts viz., leaves of babool (Acacia arabica), shirish (Albizzia lebbek), kathal (Artocarpus spp.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), pakar (Ficus infectoria), mentha (Mentha piperita), karanj (Pongomia pinnata), oak (Quercus spp.), arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), asoka (Aaraca indica), guava (Psidium gujava), mahua seed cake (Madhuka indica), harad seed pulp (Terminalia chebula) and seed of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) were screened using wheat straw and concentrate mixture (50:50) as substrate and buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. All the plant parts were added at 10% level. There was no effect on gas production by inclusion of any of the plant part, however, significant reduction in methane was observed by inclusion dry powder of eucalyptus leaves (E. globules), deoiled mahua cake (M. indica), and harad seed pulp (T. chebula) by 20.16, 22.41 and 17.48 per cent, respectively as compared to control. The in vitro true dry matter digestibility of feed, production of TVFA and its fractions and acetate to propionate ratio were also similar with all the plant parts except with tamarid (T. indica) seeds and shirish (A. lebbek) leaves, where TVFA was significantly higher than control. Various combinations of deoiled mahua cake and harad did not have any additive effect on inhibition of in vitro methane production. The results revealed that the plants containing secondary metabolites tested, have potential to be used as feed additive.

    Key words: Buffalo, In vitro gas production, Methane, Plant secondary metabolites.

    *Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00022.0 Response of Growing Egg Type Pullets (CARI Priya) to Variable Dietary Energy and Critical Amino Acids Levels
      A.B. Mandal*, Chandra Deo and A.V. Elangovan
      ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Mandal, A.B., Deo, C. and Elangovan, A.V. 2015. Response of growing egg type pullets (CARI Priya) to variable dietary energy and critical amino acids levels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 197- 206.

    An experiment was conducted involving egg type chicks (CARI Priya) reared in battery cages to optimize energy to limiting amino acids profile ratio during different phases of growth in winter months. Day-old chicks (n=225) were distributed into five dietary treatments formulated with different levels of energy (kcal ME/kg) viz. T1: 2850, T2: 2700, T3: 2600, T4: 2500 at the fixed ratio with concentration of limiting amino acids, and T5: 2600 kcal ME with altered lysine and methionine concentration. Each dietary treatment was offered to four replicated groups of 11 to 12 each. In a second experiment, 112 growing pullets of 6-wk age were distributed to four dietary treatments formulated with different levels of energy (kcal ME/kg) viz. T1: 2700, T2: 2600, T3: 2500 with the fixed energy to amino acids ratio, and T4: 2500 kcal ME with altered lysine and methionine concentration to assess the optimum requirements for 6-12 weeks growth phase, Each dietary treatment was offered to four replicated groups of seven each. Successively, in the third experiment, the same 112 growing pullets of 12-wk of age were switched over to four dietary treatments consisting of different levels of energy (kcal ME/kg) viz. T1: 2900, T2: 2700, T3: 2500 with the fixed energy to amino acids ratio and T4: 2500 kcal ME with altered lysine and methionine. Each dietary treatment was offered to four replicated groups of 7 each upto 20 wk of age. The results indicated that the optimum levels of energy, CP, lysine, methionine and threonine were 2850 kcal ME/kg, 17.7%, 0.85%, 0.31% and 0.68% for gain and feed conversion efficiency during 0-6 wk of age. A diet with 2600 kcal ME/kg, 14.6% CP, 0.62% lysine, 0.28% methionine and 0.56% threonine was optimum for growing pullets during 6-12 weeks of age. Whereas, the optimum concentration in diet of pullets during 12-20 weeks of age was energy 2700 kcal ME/kg, lysine 0.48%, methionine 0.26%, methionine + cystine 0.52% and threonine 0.47%.

    Key words: CARI Priya, Chick, Energy, Essential amino acids, Growth.

    *Corresponding author: abmcari@rediffmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00023.2 Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Performance, Hemato-biochemical Parameters and Economics of Broiler Production
      V.K. Dwivedi, V.K. Singh*, D. Tewari, S. Gautam and S.P. Singh
      Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj-224 229, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Dwivedi, V.K., Singh, V.K., Tewari, D., Gautam, S. and Singh, S.P. 2015. Effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on performance, hemato-biochemical parameters and economics of broiler production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 207-216.

    This study was conducted to assess the ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) as a phytogenic herbal growth promoter in broiler chickens. Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=250) were distributed equally into five groups of 50 chicks each and further subdivided into five replicates The chicks were placed into five dietary treatments- basal diet without any supplements (NCON) or with antibiotic (PCON), ashwagandha at 0.5% (WS-0.5), 1.0% (WS-1.0) and 1.5% (WS-1.5) levels. The effect of these supplements on feed intake, weight gain, FCR, hemato-biochemical parameters, carcass characteristics and on economic return was assessed in a six week study. After six week WS-0.5 and PCON groups showed significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain and growth rate than ncon group the fcr of pcon and ws-0.5 group broilers were incomparable, while weight gain, growth rate and pi were highest in ws-0.5 group broilers. ashwagandha supplemented groups showed significantly (p<0.05) higher Hb, PCV and WBC values, however, H:L ratio and serum cholesterol concentrations were lowest in WS-0.5 group. No significant effect of ashwagandha or antibiotics was observed on the drawn yield of broilers. The net profit per bird as well as net profit per kg live weight was highest in WS-0.5 group. The outcome of this study indicated that 0.5% ashwagandha root powder improved weight gain, feed efficiency and economic returns in broiler chickens and may be used as phytogenic growth promoter in broiler production.

    Key words: Ashwagandha, Chicken, FCR, Economics, Hemato-biochemical, Performance.

    *Corresponding author: vksinghnduat@gmail.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00024.4 Evaluation of Whole Sugarcane based Rations in Lactating Crossbred Cows
      S.A. Dhage*, Y.G. Fulpagare and S.H. Mane
      Division of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science College of Agriculture, Pune-411 003, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Dhage, S.A., Fulpagare, Y.G. and Mane, S.H. 2015. Evaluation of whole sugarcane based rations in lactating crossbred cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 217-226.

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding whole sugarcane based rations on the performance of lactating crossbred cows. Twenty lactating cows (370 kg BW) were divided in four similar groups viz. WS0 , WS50, WS75 and WS100. Control group (WS0 ) was fed on concentrate and green maize as roughage. Animals in groups WS50, WS75 and WS100 groups were fed with concentrate and green chopped whole sugarcane at 50, 75 and 100 percent of total roughage DM requirement, respectively, and remaining roughage DM was provided through jowar kadbi. Experimental feeding was carried out for 180 days. A digestion trial was conducted at the end of experimental feeding. Digestibility of DM was higher in WS100 animals fed solely on whole sugarcane as roughage portion of the diet. Digestibility of CP was significantly higher in animals in WS100 fed 100% whole sugarcane than other groups, while the animals under WS50 and WS75 showed significantly higher CP digestibility than the control group (WS0 ). The DCP and TDN contents were 7.98, 7.57, 7.87, 8.10 and 65.84, 62.67, 65.67, 68.16 percent in the WS0 , WS50, WS75 and WS100 diets, respectively. There were no adverse effects on nutrient intake and utilization even when 100% whole sugarcane was used in the ration. There was no adverse effect on reproductive performance of crossbred cows. It is, therefore, concluded that whole sugarcane can be fed solely to lactating cows as source of roughage without adverse effect on production, reproductive performance and nutrient utilization.

    Key words: Cows, Crossbred, Milk production, Reproduction, Whole sugarcane.

    *Corresponding author: dhagesameer@yahoo.co.in

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00025.6 Efficacy of Methionine Hydroxy Analogue in Ameliorating Aflatoxicosis in Japanese Quails
      Ram Singh*, A.B. Mandal and Divya
      Division of Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Singh, R., Mandal, A.B. and Divya. 2015. Efficacy of methionine hydroxy analogue in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 227-234.

    The efficacy of dietary methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) to ameliorate aflatoxicosis caused by 500 ppb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in Japanese quails was investigated. A total of 600, day-old quail chicks were divided into ten treatment groups viz. T1 : control; T2 : T1 +500 ppb AFB1 , T3 : T1 +400 ppm MHA, T4 : T1 +500 ppm MHA, T5 : T1 +625 MHA, T6 : T1 +769 ppm MHA, T7 : T2 +400 ppm MHA, T8 : T2 +500 ppm MHA, T9 : T2 +625 MHA, and T10: T2 +769 ppm MHA. Each diet was fed to four replicated groups of 15 birds each from day-old to 35d of age. The results revealed that contamination of aflatoxin (500 ppb) in the diet of Japanese quails caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in bw gain. supplementation of mha at 400-625 ppm (t7 to t9 ) level in afb1 contaminated diet though improved (p<0.05) the BW gain but could not match with the gain in control diet. However, supplementation of MHA at 769 ppm level in AFB1 contaminated diet ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on gain in quails. The overall feed consumption remained uninfluenced due to dietary treatments. The FCR of groups T7 , T8 and T9 was lower (P<0.05) than that of AFB1 fed group but higher (P<0.05) than control. The FCR of group T10 was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of AFB1 fed group similar to control. Contamination of feed with 500 ppb AFB1 resulted in significant increase in FCR of quails. Supplementation of MHA (769 ppm) to the AFB1 contaminated diet resulted in significant improvement in feed efficiency that was comparable to control. Aflatoxin contamination in diet (T2 ) resulted in enlarged, pale, congested and round bordered liver. Incorporation of MHA at higher level (769 ppm) in AF contaminated diet significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on liver morphology. It is concluded that supplementation of MHA at 769 ppm in 500 ppb AFB1 contaminated feed ameliorated the adverse effects on BW gain and FCR in Japanese quails.

    Key words: Aflatoxicosis, Methionine hydroxy analogue, Japanese quail.

    *Corresponding author: carisingh@yahoo.co.in

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00026.8 Effect of Phase-feeding on Milk Production, Milk Composition, Nutrient Utilization and Haemato-biochemical Constituents in Lactating Crossbred Cattle
      Divya Negi1, B.C. Mondal* and D.P. Tiwari
      Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Negi, D., Mondal, B.C. and Tiwari, D.P. 2015. Effect of phase-feeding on milk production, milk composition, nutrient utilization and haemato-biochemical constituents in lactating crossbred cattle. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 235-244.

    Lactating crossbred cows (n=12) in early-lactation were divided into two groups of six each and used to assess the effect of phase feeding on milk production, milk composition, nutrient utilization and haemato-biochemical constituents. The feeding trial was divided into two phases i.e. phase 1 (0-60 days) and phase 2 (61-120 days). During phase 1, cows of group I were provided high energy ration (60% TDN and 13% CP), whereas cows of group II were provided low energy ration (55% TDN and 13% CP). During phase 2, both the groups of cows were fed low energy ration. The diets were fed as total mixed ration consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and mixed green fodder. During phase 1, digestibility coefficients of CP, EE, NFE, NDF and ADF were significantly (P<0.05) higher in group i as compared to the group ii. the total dm intake in both the groups was statistically similar in phase 1 and 2. during phase 1, the average milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group I as compared to group II, whereas the average milk yield during phase 2 did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between the two groups. During phase 1, protein, ash and SNF contents of milk were significantly (P<0.05) higher in group II as compared to group I, whereas there was no significant difference in milk constituents except for total solids content was apparent during phase 2. The net energetic efficiency for milk production and gross and net efficiency of nitrogen utilization for milk production during phase 1 were significantly (P<0.05) higher in cows of group II as compared to group I while there were no significant difference between the groups in these parameters during phase 2. It was concluded that phase feeding with variable concentration of energy increases the milk yield and digestibility as well as intake of nutrients in lactating crossbred cows where high energy diet was fed during 0-60 days followed by low energy diet during the next 60 days.

    Key words: Blood, Crossbred, Energy, Lactation, Milk yield, Composition, Phase feeding.

    *Corresponding author: mondal_bc@yahoo.com

      DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2015.00027.X Efficacy of Pharmacologic Levels of Zinc Supplementation around Weaning for Prevention of Piglet Diarrhoea
      Ilakshy Deka*, J. Goswami, A. Saikia, D. Kalita and B.C. Sarmah
      Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati-781 022, India
     
      ABSTRACT
     

    Deka, I., Goswami, J., Saikia, A., Kalita, D. and Sarmah, B.C. 2015. Efficacy of pharmacologic levels of zinc supplementation around weaning for prevention of piglet diarrhoea. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 245-250.

    Thirty-two (32) crossbred (Hampshire × Assam Local) piglets of 52-days old were divided randomly into four equal groups and maintained under zinc supplemented feed for a period of 14 days (from 52 to 65 days of age). The piglets were weaned at 56 days. The Group-I (Control) was offered 100 ppm